Xã hội học - Crimes against children

Appearance Usually normal state of nutrition and hydration Blood-tinged, frothy fluids around mouth and nostrils, indicative of pulmonary edema Vomitus on the face Diaper wet and full of stool Bruise like marks on the head or body limbs (postmortem pooling or settling of blood in dependant body parts)

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ELEVENCrimes Against ChildrenLEARNING OBJECTIVESRecognize types an patterns of burn injuries found in child abuseDefine and discuss shaken-baby syndromeExplain Munchausen syndrome by proxyIdentify types of child molesters, and explain investigative and interview techniques for cases of child molestationOutline types of child pornographyDefine incest and outline profiles of incestuous fathersDescribe the profile of infant abductorsOutline the assessments and investigative procedures used to determine whether a child has run away or has been abductedDiscuss sex-offender registration and community notification lawsRecognize threat assessment factors and levels of risk in committing school crime11-1ASSAULTS AGAINST CHILDREN The most common cause of children's death is physical abuse, often by their own parentsThe clinical term commonly used to describe physically abused children is the battered-child syndromeAbuse of children takes various forms, from minor assaults to flagrant physical tortureAlthough abusers use a wide variety of instruments, the two most common are the belt and electric cord11-2BURN INJURIES AND CHILD ABUSE Typologies of Burns. A burn may be classified by how severe or “deep” it is, or by how the injury occurred.Medical Classification of Burn Severity. Physicians primarily categorize burns as having either “partial thickness” or “full thickness.”Causes of Burn InjuriesScald burns occur when the child comes into contact with hot liquidContact burns occur when the child encounters a hot solid object or flame11-3CLASSIFICATION OF BURNSPhysicians classify burns as having:partial thicknessor full thickness11-4ClassificationCharacteristicsFirst degreePartial-thickness burns:Erythema (localized redness)SunburnlikeNot included when calculating burn sizeUsually heal by themselvesSecond degreePartial-thickness burns:Part of skin damagedHave blisters containing clear fluidPink underlying tissueOften heal by themselvesThird degreeFull-thickness burns:Full skin destroyedDeep red tissue underlying blisterPresence of bloody blister fluidMuscle and bone possibly destroyedRequire professional treatmentFourth degreeFull-thickness burns:Penetrate deep tissue to fat, muscle, boneRequire immediate professional treatmentCIGARETTE BURNSIf an investigator sees burns such as those pictured, they should:become highly suspiciouslook for other signs of abusequestion the parents/guardians11-5(Courtesy Milwaukee County Department of Social Service)SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME Shaken-baby syndrome (SBS) is the severe intentional application of violent force (shaking), in one or more episodes, that results in intracranial injuries to the child. The mechanism of injury in SBS is thought to result from a combination of physical factors, including the proportionately large cranial size of infants, the laxity of their neck muscles, and the vulnerability of their intracranial bridging veins.11-6MUNCHAUSENS SYNDROME BY PROXY Munchausen syndrome is a psychological disorder in which the patient fabricates the symptoms of disease or injury in order to undergo medical tests, hospitalization, or even medical or surgical treatmentIn cases of Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP), a parent or caretaker suffering from Munchausen syndrome attempts to bring medical attention to himself or herself by injuring or inducing illness in a child11-7SITUATIONAL CHILD MOLESTORSFor purposes of discussion Kenneth V. Landing of the FBI divides child molesters into two categories.situationalpreferential11-8RegressedMorally IndiscriminateSexually IndiscriminateInadequateBasic characteristicsPoor coping skillsUser of peopleSexual experimentationSocial misfitMotivationSubstitutionWhy not?BoredomInsecurity and curiosityVictim criteriaAvailabilityVulnerability and opportunityNew and differentNonthreateningMethod of operationCoercionLure, force, or manipulationInvolve in existing activityExploits size, advantagePornography collectionPossibleSadomasochistic; detective magazinesHighly likely; varied natureLikely(Source: Kenneth V. Lanning, Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis for Law Enforcement Officers Investigating Cases of Child Sexual Exploitation, 3rd ed. (Arlington: VA: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, 1992), p. 10. Reprinted with permission of the National Centers for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC). Copyright 1986, 1987, and 1992, NCMEC. All rights reserved.)PREFERENTIAL CHILD MOLESTERS11-9SeductionIntrovertedSadisticCommon characteristicsSexual preference for children; child pornography or eroticaSexual preference for children; child pornography or eroticaSexual preference for children; child pornography or eroticaMotivationIdentificationFear of communicationNeed to inflict painVictim criteriaAge and gender preferencesStrangers or very youngAge and gender preferencesMethod of operationSeduction processNonverbal sexual contactLure or force(Source: Kenneth V. Lanning, Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis for Law Enforcement Officers Investigating Cases of Child Sexual Exploitation, 3rd ed. (Arlington: VA: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, 1992), p. 10. Reprinted with permission of the National Centers for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC). Copyright 1986, 1987, and 1992, NCMEC. All rights reserved.)INTERVIEWING MOLESTED CHILDREN Common sense and formal research agree that children are not merely miniature adultsWaterman has identified three types of developmental issues that are important when allegations of sexual abuse ariseFirst the child's developmental level relative to other children in his or her age groupSecond is the child's development level with regard to sexualityThird is the child's ability to respond adequately to interviews and to testify in court11-10(a)INTERVIEWING MOLESTED CHILDREN When anatomically detailed dolls were first introduced in the late 1970s they were widely hailed as an important advance in techniques for communicating with troubled childrenOne alternative that is being used by some police agencies either in connection with or instead of an anatomically detailed doll is to have the child draw his or her own pictureAs with the anatomical dolls, leading questions are widely used as a courtroom technique to assist child witnesses11-10(b)ANATOMICALLY DETAILED DOLLSThese dolls are used by some investigatorsThey show all body parts including genitalsSome experts disagree at to their overall usefulness11-11(Courtesy Eymann Anatomically Correct Dolls, Sacramento, California)CHILD PORNOGRAPHY Commercial Child PornographyCommercial child pornography is that which is produced and intended for commercial saleHomemade Child PornographyContrary to what its name implies, the quality of homemade child pornography can be as good if not better than the quality of any commercial pornographyUse of the Computer and the Internet in Child PornographyThe ubiquity of the computer, and by extension the Internet, is an unfortunate asset to the child pornographer11-1211-1INCEST Incest is defined broadly to include any sexual abuse of a minor child by an adult perceived by the child to be a family member.11-13CHARACTERISTICS OF INCESTUOUS FAMILIESThe incestuous family is often reclusiveOvert incest is an example of tension-reducing acting out in a dysfunctional familySerious disorganization in family roles often occurs before the beginning of the incestuous relationshipIt is not uncommon for more than one child to be sexually exploited in the same family11-14TYPOLOGIES OF INCESTUOUS FATHERS (FINKELHOR AND WILLIAMS)Type 1-The sexually preoccupiedThese men had “a clear and conscious (often obsessive) sexual interest in their daughters”Type 1-subcategory-Early sexualizersAmong the sexually preoccupied fathers, many regarded their daughters as sex objects almost from birthType 2 - Adolescent regressivesAbout one-third of the fathers - 33 percent - became sexually interested in their daughters when the girls entered puberty11-15(a)TYPOLOGIES OF INCESTUOUS FATHERS (FINKELHOR AND WILLIAMS) (cont'd)Type 3 - Instrumental self-gratifiersThey described their daughters in terms that were noneroticType 4 - The emotionally dependentThese fathers were emotionally needy, lonely, depressedType 5 - Angry retaliatorsThese fathers were the most likely to have criminal histories of assault and rape11-15(b)SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROMESimply defined, SIDS is the sudden and unexpected death of an apparently health infant that remains unexplained after the performance of a complete autopsy11-16CHARACTERISTICS OF SIDS VICTIMSAppearance Usually normal state of nutrition and hydrationBlood-tinged, frothy fluids around mouth and nostrils, indicative of pulmonary edemaVomitus on the faceDiaper wet and full of stoolBruise like marks on the head or body limbs (postmortem pooling or settling of blood in dependant body parts)11-17ELECTRONIC MONITORING DEVICE USED TO PREVENT SIDSDevice used to prevent SIDSMonitors heart and respiration ratesParents alerted by light and audible alarm11-18(Courtesy Joseph and Karin Venero)INFANT ABDUCTIONInfant abduction is the taking of a child less than one year old by a nonfamily memberInfant abductions do not appear to be motivated by:desire for moneysexrevengecustody11-19PROFILE OF THE INFANT ABDUCTORInfant abductors are usually women Women account for 141 of the 145 cases analyzedAges ranged from 14 to 48 years oldaverage age 28 years old11-20(a)PROFILE OF THE INFANT ABDUCTOR (cont'd)Race was determined in 142 cases: 63 offenders were white54 offenders were black25 offenders were HispanicTypical abductor does not have criminal record If a criminal record does exist, it will likely consist of nonviolent offenses 11-20(b)USE OF AGE-PROGRESSION TECHNOLOGY TO SEARCH FOR MISSING CHILDRENIn recent years, computer technology has been used to age-enhance photographs of missing children. Information collected on the missing child including:Full frontal photographs of the childVideotapes of the child, if availableInformation regarding identifying marksHair color and styleTraditional information11-21(a)USE OF AGE-PROGRESSION TECHNOLOGY TO SEARCH FOR MISSING CHILDREN (cont'd)Photographs of the parents and siblings at the comparable age of enhancement are also valuableComputerized records of photographs and details are created and stored11-21(b)AGE PROGRESSION COMPUTER TECHNOLOGYThis technology was built by using the expertise and techniques of: The FBIExperienced police artists11-22(Courtesy National Center for Missing and Exploited Children)INVESTIGATIVE DETERMINATION OF RUNAWAY OR ABDUCTION Runaway or abduction cases The Parental InterviewThe need to interview parents separately from other family members and reporting parties remains criticalVictimology To understand if the child's absence in consistent with established patterns of behavior, officers first must understand the child’S normal actions prior to the disappearanceResourcesTo successfully sustain a voluntary long-term absence, the runaway child must have access to resources that will satisfy basic needs, such as food, shelter, and transportation11-23(a)INVESTIGATIVE DETERMINATION OF RUNAWAY OR ABDUCTION (cont'd) Scene AssessmentA search of the missing child's residence can provide useful information to investigatorsTime FactorsStatistics indicate that the majority of runaway children cannot sustain an absence for more than two weeks11-23(b)SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND COMMUNITY NOTIFICATION The LawsIn 1994, Congress passed the Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexuality Violent Offender Registration Act (The Jacob Wetterling Act)The act required that states create sex offender registries within three years or lose 10 percent of their funding under the Edward Byrne Memorial ProgramThe Pam Lychner Sexual Offender Tracking and Identification Act of 1996 amended the Jacob Wetterling Act by establishing a national sex offender database, which the FBI maintains11-24(a)SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION AND COMMUNITY NOTIFICATION (cont'd) Registration RequirementsAlthough sex offender registration requirements vary according to state laws, some common features exist in registries across the countryFor example, a state agency (i.e., state police) maintain the registry for the stateNotification FeaturesThe most basic form of notification, sometimes referred to as “passive notification,” allows inquiring citizens to access registry information at their local law enforcement agencies11-24(b)SCHOOL CRIME: FACTORS IN THREAT ASSESSMENTSpecific, plausible details are a critical factor in evaluating a threatThe emotional content of a threat can be an important clue to the threatener’s mental statePrecipitating stressors are incidents, circumstances, reactions, or situations which can trigger a threatPre-disposing factors. Underlying personality traits, characteristics, and temperament that predispose an adolescent to fantasize about violence or act violently11-25LEVELS OF RISK IN SCHOOL CRIMELow level of threat. A threat which poses a minimal risk to the victim and public safety.Medium level of threat. A threat which could be carried out, although it may not appear entirely realistic. High level of threat. A threat that appears to pose an imminent and serious danger to the safety of others.11-26WEAPON DETECTION PROGRAMSWeapon detectors are now used in some schoolsThese systems are expensiveThese systems also require a security guard to be present11-27(Courtesy Chester A. Higgins, Jr., and the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice)

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