Xã hội học - Agricultural, wildlife and environmental crimes

Agrichemical theft Rural dealers should employ security personnel during months with large inventories Be suspicious of persons offering unusually good buys on agrichemicals Livestock or tack theft All livestock should be marked for identification Avoid leaving animals in remote pastures

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SEVENTEENAgricultural, Wildlife and Environmental CrimesLEARNING OBJECTIVESDiscuss the prevalence of timber theftExplain agrichemical theftDiscuss cattle and horse rustlingOutline several methods of horse and cattle identificationSummarize measures to prevent rural and agricultural crimesDistinguish between situational and professional poachersUnderstand investigative techniques used in wildlife crimesList and describe the characteristics of hazardous wasteDiscuss methods of investigating environmental crimes17-1DIMENSIONS OF AGRICULTURAL, WILDLIFE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CRIMES Ranchers, farmers, and others living in rural places are often the victims of theftsNationally, rustlers steal about 20,000 cattle worth $12.1 millionOur national parklands are also victimized by plant poachersIt must be observed that person who live in rural areas and on farms, groves, vineyards, and ranches not only are crime victims but are themselves occasional offenders17-2TIMBER THEFT The U.S. Forest Service concedes that it doesn't know how much timer is stolen from national forestsThe value may be as much as $100 million worth annually and the theft may amount to about 1 in every 10 trees cut downInvestigations into the illegal cutting of timber involve a full range of investigative techniques17-3BONE RUSTLERSUnauthorized fossil hunters, who loot public and private landsUnauthorized fossil hunters, who loot public and private land17-4AGRICHEMICALAny of various chemical products used on farms; includes pesticides, fertilizers, and herbicides17-5THEFT OF AGRICHEMICALS The theft of agrichemicals is a multimillion-dollar-per-year problem nationallyThe exact type of agrichemical taken varies by geographic region, depending on what the predominant crop isDistributors in particular have been vulnerable to the hijacking of trucks carrying agrichemicals, with resulting losses of $200,000 or more per incidentThe investigator must become familiar with the legal supply channels and the principal agrichemicals that are used in his or her regionSome farmers will engage in the theft of agrichemicals or will readily purchase such commodities at “bargain prices”17-6LIVESTOCK AND TACK THEFT Cattle Rustling The majority of thefts are committed by one or two people who take the animal for their own useHorse RustlingMore than 50,000 horses are stolen each year as compared to about 20,000 cattleAbout 60 percent of the stolen horses end up in slaughter plants, where they are processed and sold as meat for human consumption in Europe and JapanTack TheftTack is equipment that is used with horses; the most common items are saddles, bridles, and horse blankets17-7LIVESTOCK IDENTIFICATION In any livestock theft case one key to a successful prosecution is the positive identification of a specific animal as belonging to a particular ownerHot‑Iron Branding Hot-iron branding is a method of identification that has been used in this country for nearly 400 yearsEar Tags and Injectable Identification Bar-code ear tags for cattle were an advancement for herd management17-8(a)LIVESTOCK IDENTIFICATION (cont'd) Freeze BrandingSpecial freeze-branding irons are chilled using dry ice or liquid nitrogen and then applied to the hideEarmarksEarmarks are often used in conjunction with brandingDNA Profiles DNA profiles of expensive horses and bulls are common as a theft deterrent17-8(b)CATTLE IDENTIFICATION FORMUniformed police officers often take the initial report of a livestock theftThese officers often have little knowledge of livestockForms such as the one shown are helpful to the officer in documenting livestock identifiers17-9(Source: Courtesy Los Angeles County, California, Sheriff’s Department)HORSE IDENTIFICATION FORMThis form serves the same purpose as the cattle identification formUniformed officers must receive training in the use of this form in order to use it effectivelyInformation captured on the form can greatly assist the identification process which is critical in a prosecution of livestock theft17-10(Source: Courtesy Kern County, California, Sheriff’s Department)BRANDSOn livestock, registered combinations of numbers, letters, marks and shapes that establish unique identifications17-11METHODS OF READING BRANDSBrands are registered with different agencies in various statesSome are registered with state agenciesOthers are registered with local courthouses17-12EXAMPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION MEASURES TO PROTECT AGAINST RURAL AND AGRICULTURAL CRIMESFarm equipment theftParticipate in equipment identification programsDo not learn equipment in remote fieldsTimber theftPost the propertyCheck to see if any timber has been cut17-12(a)EXAMPLES OF CRIME PREVENTION MEASURES TO PROTECT AGAINST RURAL AND AGRICULTURAL CRIMES (cont'd)Agrichemical theftRural dealers should employ security personnel during months with large inventoriesBe suspicious of persons offering unusually good buys on agrichemicalsLivestock or tack theftAll livestock should be marked for identificationAvoid leaving animals in remote pastures17-13(b)POACHINGThe illegal taking or possessing of game, fish, and other wildlife17-14ELK KILLED FOR THRILLSSituational poachers are motivated by opportunity and circumstanceSituational poachers killed the elk pictured as no attempt was made to retrieve the antlers or any meatProfessional poachers take more game than situational poachers and make more profit17-15(Courtesy Wyoming Game and Fish Department)INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES USED IN WILDLIFE CRIMESInformation is an essential commodity in combating poachersUniformed wildlife officers patrol in boats and carsWildlife officers also employ intensive hunting patrols17-16(a)INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES USED IN WILDLIFE CRIMES (cont'd)Vehicle check stops are strategically set upFishing patrols check to see that no protected or endangered fish are being takenIn a common wildlife violation, nonresidents of a state claim residency, to pay less for licensesSometimes investigators must pose undercover to collect information17-16(b)ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME: THE LEGAL FRAMEWORKThere are roughly 18 major federal environmental laws that form the basis for Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) programsFrom this maze of laws three patterns of enforcement emergeActs over which only the federal government has jurisdictionActs for which there is concurrent federal and state jurisdictionActs for which there is unique state and/or local jurisdiction17-17HAZARDOUS WASTESSolid, liquid, sludge, and manufacturing by-product wastes that are ignitable, corrosive, reactive, and/or toxic; may pose serious threat to human health and the environment if improperly managed17-18CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTESThe illegal dumping of hazardous wastes is a civil and criminal violationPolice personnel should have a general awareness of the characteristics of hazardous waste materialsWhen hazardous materials are encountered police should summon firefighters or hazardous materials disposal personnel17-19(Source: Courtesy Environmental Protection Agency)TSD CRIMESAny illegal acts involving the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous wastes17-20METHODS OF INVESTIGATING ILLEGAL DUMPING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES Patrolling officers should be alert for signs that indicate the possibility or presence of illegal dumping of hazardous wasteOfficers should approach suspected hazardous-waste spills and toxic-waste sites with the wind at their backs and from the highest ground reasonably availableLeads on illegal hazardous-waste sites may be offered by disgruntled or former employees occasionally by a current employee17-21(a)METHODS OF INVESTIGATING ILLEGAL DUMPING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES (cont'd) Surveillance is an excellent tool for gathering information, as it can establish illegal practices and the person involved with themFor most environmental crimes, it is necessary to form a team to conduct the investigation17-21(b)

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