Vấn đề người kể chuyện trong diễn ngôn truyện kể

NKC là chủ thể nói, chủ thể của hành vi kể trong diễn ngôn truyện kể song thực chất anh ta cũng là một loại nhân vật được tác giả hư cấu, dùng làm công cụ giúp mình tổ chức một tác phẩm tự sự. Vì vậy, vấn đề NKC thuộc về kĩ thuật kể chuyện, kĩ thuật tổ chức tác phẩm. Sự đa diện mạo của anh ta, sự biểu hiện phức tạp của anh ta trong truyện kể chính là để phục vụ cho nghệ thuật kể chuyện. Xác định đúng NKC trong truyện là rất quan trọng để nhận ra được phần nào giá trị nghệ thuật của tác phẩm,

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N G 6 N NGtr & Bin S 6 N G s l 4 (246)-2016 NGON N G C VOI VAN CHLTONGI VAN DE NGlTcn KE CHUYEN TRONG DIEN NGON TRUYEN KE THE NARRATOR IN THE NARRATTVE DISCOURSE NGUYfiN THJ THU THtY (TS; Dfi hfc Sir ph«m Hd Nfi) Abstract: This article discusses about the narrator in the narrative discourse, compares the narrator and implied author, focalizer, character, voice,...in order to find out possible similarities and differences between of them. Also, we aim at defining the nairatoi in recitation, which helps the reader to understand the writer s intention expressed in the text easily and correctiy. Key words: narrator; implied author; focalizer; narrative discouise. 1, Din nhf p gpi khdc nhau: NKC d ngdi thft nhit vd Ngudi ki chuyfn ( NKC) Id vin di dugc quan tam khd nhiiu trong nhihig ndm gin ddy d cd ITnh vuc tu su hoc vd ngfin ngft hpc. Tuy nhifin, trong nhiiu nghifin cftu vi ngudi ke chuydn, vi^c xdc dinh nhdn v§t ndy cdn gdp nhiiu vudng mdc vd fliiiu nhit qudn. Trudc thuc te dd, bdi bdo ndy ciia chung tfii muin ldm sdng td mot vdi diem then chit, tft dd dua ra dugc mfit si cdn eft giup cho vi$c xdc djnh NKC tiong truy$n ki dugc r5 rdng vd nhit qudn. 2. M$t vai n^ t ve ngirdi ke chuydn 2.J. Coi truyen ki la san phim cua hojit dfing giao tiep bdng ngfin ngft thi NKC Id ngudi ndi trong tdc phim, ngudi sft dyng cdc phuong ti?n ngfin ngft de t ^ thdnh Idi ki, hie NKC Id chu thi cua hdnh vi ki chuy$n. 2.2. NKC cftng vdi nhdn v^t vd dfic gid Id nhftng yiu t i khong thi tiiiiu tiong mfit imy^n ki. Ndi nhu Katie Wale thi "qud trinh t\l svi it nhat cd ba nhdn vat khdi phat: nhdn v$t (he), ngudi ki (I) va ngudi dgc (you) hojc ki md ngudi ta ndi tdi (he - NTTT chii fliich), ke ndi (I - NTTT chft fliich) vd ki md ngudi ta ndi vdi (you - NTTT chu thich)" [12 ]. Theo quan diim ndy cua Katie vd li fliuyit giao tiep thi ro rdng ngudi ndi (NKC) lufin lufin d ngoi thft nhit. Cho nfin mjc dil cd nhiiu cdch phdn chia NKC vd nhiiu tfin NKC d ngfii tiift'ba, NKC chiing nhdn, NKC su quan, NKC todn tri,...[4] song d day chiing tfii chi Ivra chgn thu$t ngft NKC hldng minh vd NKC hdm in, d\ia vdo ± su xuit hien cfta NKC xung "tfii" [7]. 2.3. Ngirdi ki chuydn cd bdn chit ludng thi, pha tgp vd da difn mgo Theo Way C. Booth, "moi m^t tdc phim deu chfta dii thoai hdm in gifta tdc gid - NKC - nhdn vjt vd d^c gid. Vd m§t ttong so lion ngudi ndy cd the dong nhit vdi mqt ttong s6 nhihig ngudi kia" [6, ti.99]. Qua khdo sdt tdc pham chiing tfii thiy nh^ djnli ndy Id hit sftc xdc ddng. Tfty tftng ttuimg hgp cy thi NKC c6 the cd nhfing "gomg mjt", "di$n m?io" giing vdi nhihig ngiicii khdc: - NKC cd thi ding nhit vdi nhto vjt tiong tiudng hgp Id NKC tudng mini. Chdng han nhdn v$t Thuin tixmg Tudng vl htm cua Nguyen Huy Tlii$p. - NKC cd flii ding nhit vdi tdc gid htai in trong trudng hgp Id NKC hdm in. Tic gid hdm an ciing la ngudi to chftc vdn bdn, chju ttdch nhi^m ve svr cd mjit hay sv v3ng mat cua bO ph$n ndy hay bg ph$n khdc cia chuyfn trong truyfn vd bdi hai con ngiiJi nay dugc tdch ra khdi nhftng sif ki?n vi c6 J Si4(246)-2016 NG6N NGC & Bin S6NG 81 flii th5m chl khfing thiit I$p mOt mil quan h$ diin ngfin ndo vdi dfic gid hdm in. - Ngudi ki cd flii ding nhit vdi d$c gid hdm in tixing cdc truy$n DTNT hay ddng tim hi. Trong BTNT vd ddng tdm hi, NKC hi phdn flidn ra ldm hai: vfta Id ngudi ki vfta Id ngudi nghe, t(i tdm si/ vdi chinh minh... Nhu v$y cd the thiy: NKC cd thi Id tdc gid hdm in, cd thi Id nhdn vat, cd thi Id d(c gid hdm in; bdn chit cfta anh ta Id bdn chit lu&ng thi, pha t?p vd da di$n mao [S]. Song cdi quan ttgng anh ta cfing khong phdi Id ai trong s i nhiing ngudi iy, anh ta vin khdc nhdn v$t, khdc tdc gid hdm in vd d$c gid hdm in. Chinh bdn chit ndy se giup anh ta thdm nh^p m$t cdch uyin chuyen vdo thi gidi dugc mifiu td, d$c bi|t Id sS giiip anh ta cd nhiiu cdch ke chuy?n. Nhimg cflng chlnh cdi bdn chit ludng thi, pha t?ip vd da di$n m i^o ndy gdy khd khdn cho vifc xdc djnh NKC trong tdc phim. 2.4. Su xuit hi?n ciia NKC ttong truy$n Id rit da djng bdi cdi bdn chit pha tjp vd da di|n m?o kia cfta anh ta. Thudng tU ttong m$t truyen chi cd mgt NKC nhung biiu hi^n cfta anh ta khfing phdi luc ndo cflng thuin nhit trong suit cdu chuy$n. Cd nhthig trayen, NKC tiii hifn r6 vai trd ki chuyfin ciia minh tft diu din cuii, viia nhin [xin xem khdi n i ^ diim nhin trong tdi li$u tham khdo si 8] viia ki (Thuin ttong Tudng vi huu, >IK(5 hdm in trong Khdng cd vua cfta Nguyin Huy Thifji), cd nhftng truyen NKC hieu hi$n bdng nhieu guong m|it khdc nhau, chdng hgn: Chi Pheo cfta Nam Cao, Ngudl a bin sdng Chdu cua Suong Nguyft Mudi, Hoa chanh ti'di vif cfla Vdn Nhu Cuong... Trong truyf n Ngudi d bin sdng Chdu, phin Idn cdu chuyfn dugc ki bdng gigng difu, diim nhin cfta hi Mai - mfit c6 hgc smh cip ba trudng huyfn; cd ch5 dugc ki bdng gigng dif u, diim nhin cila NKC hdm in, cd Mc l?i dugc ki flieo gigng difu, diim nhhi cua nhftng ngudi Ifah cfing binh,...Truyfn Hoa chanh trdi vif cfing chi cd mft NKC nhung todn bf cdu chuyfn dugc ki bdng lii ki ci tich cfla mgt NKC hdm ia, din phin vl flianh, NKC ndy dft ngft xung "tfii". Tniyfn hifn dgi cd flii xuit hifn nhiiu NKC, vi dy Hdu thien dudng cfla Nguyin Thj Thu Huf cd hai NKC: ngudi ki flift nhit xung "tfii" ki vi cuf c ddi cfla chinh minh, ngudi ki tiift hai Id NKC hdm in, xuit hifn d phin cuii cfla ttuyfn; tiiiyfn Sdm h6i mudn cfla Lf CSng cung cd hai NKC,...Biiu hifn da d^g ndy Id nhftng thdch thftc khiin cho vifc xdc djnh NKC tiong tiniyfn ki gSp nhiiu khd khdn. Dudi ddy, chftng tfii xm trinh bdy mfit si vin di lifn quan din NKC nhdm Idm rS ranh gidi gifta NKC vd cdc nhjn to di bi nhim lin nhu tdc gid hdm in, ngudi tifu diim hda, nhdn v§t,... Hi vgng cdi ranh gidi rfi rdng ndy sS giftp cho vifc xdc djnh NKC trong truyf n ki dugc di ddng hon. 3. Ngordi ke chuyfn vd cdc nhdn t i c6 lifn quan 3.1. Ngirdi ki chuydn vd tdc gid hdm &n NKC vd tdc gid hdm an Id hai chu flii cd nhiiu diim khd gin nhau nen trong th\rc ti dd xdy ra khfing it nhim lin. Nhiiu nhd nghifn cftu dd dfing nhit NKC vdi tdc gid ndy. Nhung ddy vin Id hai ngudi khdc nhau. NKC Id chfl thi cfla hdnh vi ki chuyfn, cdn tdc gid hdm in Id chfl thi cfla hdnh vi sdng t90 nghf thu$t. Hdnh vi sdng t^o nghe thuft bao hdm hdnh vi ki chuyfn, cung tftc Id NKC fliufic vi tiii gidi ttuyfn ki, mfit kiiu nhdn vft do tdc gid hdm in hu ciu di giup minh ki mft cdu chuyfn. - Trudng hgp dl nhim lin nhit gifta NKC vd tdc gid hdm in chinh Id trudng hgp tniyfn ke cd NKC hdm in. Bdi s\i khfing hifn difn bdng hinh thftc nhan xung ngfii thu nhit, vd thudng thi NKC cd gigng ki tCmg trdi, uyfn bdc - giing gigng tdc gid. Vi dy : Nhd ldo Klin sdu ngudi. Todn ddn dng. Bd Nhdn, vg ldo Kiin, mdt 82 NGON NGf & Ddi S 6 N G S64(246)-2016 dd mudi mdt ndm, luc do ldo Klin ndm muai ba tudi, cdi tudi odl odm, Idy vg niia cUng da, khdng Idy vg niia cUng dd. Ldo Kiin chgn cdi dd it hem, a vdy [18, tr.86]. Vdi tniyfn ke kiiu nay, ta thiy tdc gid hdm in cfing Id ngudi tfi chftc vdn bdn, chju ttdch nhifm vi sy cd m^t hay sy vdng m t^ cfla bf phfn ndy hay bf p h ^ khdc cfla chuyfn trong truyfn vd bdi hai con ngudi ndy dugc tdch ra khdi nhftng sy kifn vd cd thi thfm chi khfing thiit l^ p mfit mii quan hf diin ngfin ndo vdi dfc gid hdm in. 3.2. Phin bi$t ngudi ki chuy$n vdi ngirdi tiSu diim hda Ngudi tifu diim hda (focalizer) Id thuat ngft md G.Genette dua ra ndm 1972. Ngudi tieu diim hod (NTBH) hay chft flii cfla DN la nhdn vft md nhfn thftc cfta anh ta sS dinh hudng cho sy phdt triin cfta truyfn [II, tt.29]. Ndi cdch khdc, NTBH Id ngudi fliyc hifn hdnh vi nhln - hdnh vi quan sdt, cam nh$n, ddnh gid,... Id xuat phdt diim di djnh vi gid tri ciia thi gi(5i hifn thyc ttong truyfn. NTBH cdn dugc ggi Id ngicd^ phdn dnh (reflector) [din flieo 12, tt.I79]. Vi dy, Mai trong Nguoi a bin sdng Chdu cfta Suong Nguyft Minh Id NTDH, Mai Id ngudi quan sdt, cdm nh§n, ddnh gid vi dng bd, me, di M&y, chd San,... Vd mgi gid tri cfla thi gidi hifn thyc trong truyfn, chdng han quyin lyc vd than hihi cfla cdc nhdn vft dng, bd, me, di Mdy, chu San,... Id dugc dinh vi tu Mai. Ddc Unh cfta NTDH Id: anh ta Id ngudi nghl hodc cdm fliiy mft cdch tryc tiep dii vdi dfc gid. Anh ta khfing phdi Id ngudi phdt ngfin trong tiiiyfn (tior trudng hgp NTDH cung ding flidi Id NKC). NTDH cd flii Id NKC, cd flii Id nhdn vft; cd tiii khong la ai trong si hai ngudi ndy. - NTBH Id ngudi ki chuyfn (NTDH = NKC) Dd Id trudng hgp NTDH ding flidi' Id NKC hdm in: (NTDH = NKC hdm in). Loai NTDH ndy fliudng xuit hifn ttong nhftng truyfn cd DN lifn ngodi vd truyfn cd BS todn tri. Trong nhthig truyfn ki kiiu niy, cdu chuyfn dugc ki tft DN cfla mft NKC hdm in. Mgi sy ddnh gid, cdm nhfn, quan sdt,...diu Id cfta NKC hdm in dftng ngoii quan sdt vd ki 1^ cdu chuyfn. - NTDH Id nhdn vft (NTDH = nhdn vft) NTDH Id nhdn vft d ngfii thft ha ttong nhftng tniyfn cd NKC hdm in, ki flieo BN ben trong tya vdo DN cua nhdn vft di ke. Tnidng hgp ndy, NTDH Id nhln vft cd suy nghl, cd host dfng ty cdm nhfa Vd mii quan hf (vai) gifta cdc nhdn vft trong trayfa dugc xdc dinh trong quan hf vdi NTBH niy chft khfing phdi vdi NKC hdm in. ChJng hgn, Mai trong Ngudi d bin sdng Chdu (sdd) Id NTBH dong flidi Id mft nhdn vat hong truyfn. - NTDH vfta Id nhan vft vfta 14 NKC (NTDH s nhdn vft s NKC) Trudng hgp ndy, NTDH Id NKC tudng minh ding thdi Id mfit nhdn vat cfla ttuyfn, ki chuyfn mhih hofc ki chuyfn ngudi khdc tft quan sdt cfta minh. Chdng han, nhdn vjt Thuin xung "tfij" ki chuyfn cha nflnh ttong tixiyf n Tudng vi huu (Nguyin Huy Thif p) 14 NTBH. Nhdn vft Trflc tiong Miia idng im dp (Nguyin Thi Thu Huf) cung li mft NTBH xung "tfii" ki chuyfn chmh mhih. - NTDH khfing phdi Id NKC cung khong phdi bat eft nhdn vat ndo ttong tmyfn (NTBH * nhdn vft * NKC) Dd Id d tradng hgp tiuyf n ki cd NKC tudng minh, nhung NKC tudng minh niy khfing fliam gia vdo hdnh dfing cua tmyfn, cung khfing phdi Id chfl flii cdm nhfn, quan sdt, anh ta chi cd nhifm vy ki chuyfn. Nhu vfy, tiTidc hit NTDH khfing phdi Id NKC. VI dy Truyfn Hoa chanh trdi W) (Vdn Nhu Cuong). Mdi din sau khi kit thiic tiuyfn, NKC mdi xuit hifn d phin vilhanh: "Anh Chanh, hifn nay anh d ddu? Niu anh dgc miu chuyfn ndy cfla tfii, xin anh viet thu vi tod soan bdo The Gidi M6i Si4(246)-2016 NGON N G C & Ddi S 6 N G dp bao tin. re; chdc chdn anh sS chumg minh ling nhihig diiu tdi viit tren ddy diu Id sy flift" [15, tt.59]. Phin tiinSc dd, todn bfi cdu chuyfn dugc ki theo loi ki ci tich, NKC in, dftng trfn nhan vft: "Ngay xua, tgi Idng kia c6 doi trai gdi yfiu nhau rat mfn md. Ngudi con trai khod mgnh, dung cdm vd chdn fliinh. Cd con gdi thuy mi, nit na, hay lam hayldm,..."[I5,tt.56]. Cdch ggi ten nhan vft: Bdi trai gdi, ngudi con trai, cd con gdi Id each ggi rit khdch quan tft DN cfta mft NTDH xa Ig ndo dd chft khfing thufc the gidi cfla truyfn. Ndi cdch khdc thi khong cd nhdn vft ndo ttong truyfn mang DN, chi don thuin Id cdc nhdn vft hinh dfng dudi sy quan sdt cfla mfit NTDH gidu mdt. NTDH giiu mdt ndy rfi rdng Id vfta khdc vdi cdc nhdn vft ttong truyfn, vfta khdc vdi NKC xung "tdi" xuat hifn d cuii tdc phim nhu dd ndi d tren. Chung ta biit ring: Trong hogt dgng ndi ndng thi ngudi ndi cd thi ndi vdi DN cfta chinh minh, cd thi ndi vdi DN cfta ngudi kbac. Tftc Id ngudi ndi cd thi Id chfl thi cfla DN, cung cd thi khfing phdi Id chfl thi cfla DN. Vi diiu ndy, D 5 Hftu Chdu cung dd phdn bift chu ngdn vd thuyit ngdn [xem I, tt.16]. 6 truyfn, sy phan bift nay cdn rtS hon. Hinh thftc hfi thogi ngim cho ph6p ngudi ndi (NKC) sft dyng nhiiu phuong fliftc ki khdc nhau di flii hifn DN. Cd nhftng trudng hgp md NTDH chi don thuin Id ngudi quan sdt, cdm nhfn thi gidi hifn ttiyc md khfing hi cd chftc ndng vd myc dich flie hifn nhiing quan sdt, cdm nhfn yd ddnh gid dd cfla minh cho dfc gid biit. Chdng hgn trudng hgp NTBH id nhdn vft d ngfii thft ba nhu Mai d truyfn Ngu&i d bin sdng Chdu dd din. Trong tinh huong ndy phdi cd mft ngudi khdc ki Igi nhftng cdm nhfn, suy nghi, quan sdt cfta Mai hie la tdi hifn Igi thi gidi hifn thyc tft DN cfla Mai, cfing tftc Id bgc If DN cua Mai cho dgc gid biit. Ndi nhu Todorov; "Nhin thiy ngfii nhd vd ndi len "Toi thiy mft ngfii nhd" Id hai hdnh vi khfing chi khdc nhau md cdn dii Ifp nhau. Nhftng biin ci khfing bao gid cd thi ty ki li dugc vi minh, ten ggi cdc sy vifc cung khfing phdi dugc khdc trong sy vft". Chuyfn nham lin gifta NKC vd NTBH sfi xdy ra ttong trudng hgp: NKC khfing xuat hifn tryc tiip vdi hinh thdi ciia dgi tft ngfii thft nhit ("tfii" hofc "chftng tfii") md xuat hifn hdm in sau nhiing quan sdt, cdm nhan cfla NTDH, cung ding thdi Id mfit nhdn vft ttong tmyfn. Ndi cdch khdc, NKC hod than vdo nhdn vft, "in" sau nhdn vgt de ki, ki theo DN cfla mfit nhan vft ttong tdc phim. Vi dy, truyfn Phien chg Gidt: NKC nhta dugc phin Idn hdnh dgng vdi dfii mdt cfla ldo Killing, nhung ldo Khflng khfing tft dd md tgo nfn cho chiing ta thifn truyfn Phlen chg Gidt. Ldo chi Id diim tya, dugc mfit NKC hdm in hf ting, ddm nhfn ttdch nhifm cfta ngudi ndi: Vi dy "Ai? Ai dd giit con khoang den nhd ldo, ngudi ban ddi cfla ldo? Ldo ndo? Thing gid chit til chit tift ndo, dura thin thing nao, bgn trf m cudp giet ngudi cfla dan ki bdi hay son trang ndo? Thi ldo chft ai? Dfta hung fliin Id ldo Khiing chft ai? Kd ndng chiec bfla tg len ddnh vdo diu con vft Id ldo chft ai. Tay chdn run idy bdy, md hdi todt ra sdng do ddm dia, ldo Khiing sg qud. Ldo da tid nfin dfic dc qud mftc, thft Id vfi cimg dc dfic, md ldo dd ttd nen dfc dc ngodi sftc nghl cfta con ngudi tft bao gid vay? Gid nhu ngudi khdc. Id ngudi biet ngoan ngoSn tudn phyc mft thft tfin gido nao thi chdc hdn Iftc ndy, gifta dfm hflm khuya khodt, ldo dd Ifp tftc qu^ sup xuing md hoi hd dgc kinh, dfp diu xufing dit md van ndi kf ton thd, tnit long dn ndn sdm hii trudc ding thifng lieng d tifin diu tren ci. Ddng ndy la mfit ki vfi dgo, ldo Khflng chl biit Ift minh ngoi dfy ttfn tim phdn gS md run sg mgt minh, vdt vd dau khd mgt minh, tijt minh Igi idy ldm sg hdi trudc chlnh minh. Ldo md trim^ Iritng hai con mdt md nhto ten hung thin do ti vfta nhdp vdo ldo, ngay khi 84 NG6N NGP &D6IS6NG Si4(246)-20I6 ldo htoh yfn ngft ttfn tim phdn quen thufc giiia nha minh. Dogn rii nhu mft ke may mdn thodt hog, ldo Khflng thd phdo. Thyc may! May qud! Vay Id khong phdi, chi Id trong giac mo. Khong phdi fliyc. Dftng, md ddy rii, con khoang den nhd lao Iflc nay dang khyt khjt d ngoai gian lid sau nhd bip. Lao ySn tdm ndm xuong. Vd nghi vi gidc ma tiip sau do..." [13, tt.587]. Vdi dfii mdt cfta ldo Khftng, NKC dl ddng thdm nhdp vdo ddi song nfii tam cfta nhfn vft, fliiy dugc nhftng hdnh vi bfin ttong cfta nhan vft: cdc hdnh vi chi tdm ttgng, cdm gidc (run idy bdy, md hdi todt ra sdng do dim dia, run sg mgt minh, dau khd mdt minh, yin Idm,...); cdc hanh vi phdn dodn, gid djnh biiu hifn tu duy (gid nhu, thi chdc hdn...); ddo bift Id nhftng suy nghl tiiim kin cfta nhan vft (cdc y nghl ngi tam gidn tiep ty do). Vdi cdi nUn ndy, NKC dd hod than vdo suy nghl, tdm trang, thih cam,...cfla nhdn vft den mftc toi da, khiin cho Idi ki chuyfn sinh dfng, mang diy phong thdi, gigng difu nhfn vft. Cd flii vi flii md nhiiu tdc gid cho ddy Id kiiu tixiyfn ki d ngfii thft ba, tftc cd NKC d ngfii thft ba, nhu vfy lao Khflng Id NKC. Thyc ra flii ldo Khftng khfing phdi Id NKC, ldo chi Id nhan vat ddm ttdch chftc ndng cfla mft NTDH; ngudi quan sdt, cdm nhfn vi thi gidi di tft dd NKC ki Igi nhihig quan sdt, cdm nhfn ndy. NKC dd hod thdn vdo nhfn vat nhu dd ndi d tten, din mftc ta khd phdn bift dugc gigng ndo cfla lao Khiing, gigng ndo cua NKC. Md Igi thiy nhu gigng ldo Khiing Id chfl dgo, eft nhu Id ldo Khflng dang ki chuyfn vfy,...Nhimg dft cd nhu thi thi cfing khfing thi lin Ifn kieu truyfn ki ndy vdi kiiu truyfn ki ttong dd bdn thdn nhdn vat ke chuyfn (nhan vft ke chuyfn d ngfii thft idiat, xung bang ten rieng). Tftc la khfing cd tmyfn ndo dugc kf boi NKC d ngfii thft ba. NKC lufin d ngfii flift nhat, chi cd dieu anh ta cd xuit hifn tryc tiip ttong tdc phim hay khfing md thfii. Cdi Idm cho chung ta dl bi lim hidng ring cd NKC d ngfii thii ba nhu ttong tiudng hgp ndy, chinh Id cdi ddi sing nfi tdm cda nhdn vft dugc phdn dnh rat phong phft, sinh dfing. Vd vi mft ngfin tft, nd dugc thi hi$n sinh dfng bdng cdc dfic thogi nfi tdm, Idi n6i bfin trong; sy mieu td cfn cdnh cdc bieu hifn cfta trgng thdi ngi tdm: tttychdn run idy bdy, md hdi todt ra sdng do ddm dia, sg, run sg, vgt vd dau khd, sg hdi,...; cdc thftc gid djnh Ifp lufn biiu hifn suy nghl ddn vft: gid nhu, chdc hdn, ddng ndy,... Ddy cfing chhih li ddc trung cfta phuong thftc thi hifn Idi k^ chuyfn theo DN ben ttong. Cflng nhu vfy, ttong truyfn Ngudi d bin sdng Chdu: NKC Id ngudi ki hdm in, kl theo DN cfta Mai, chft Mai khfing phai li NKC. Mai Id NTBH, NKC di mugn giong Mai - mft cfi bf gdi dang hgc cip III ttudng huyfn di ki cfu chuyfn ve nhftng nguM than cua Mai. Cd nhu vfy, NKC mdi dl ddng hod vdo ddi song ngi tdm cia nhin vft, dl ddng hod vdo cdi gia dtoh cua Mai, de biit, di "tgc mgch" vdo mgi chuyfn cda gia dtoh iy. NKC cung nhd flii dd dft tftng thdnh vien cfla gia dinh Mai trudc dfc gii md khfing cin mft Idi gidi thifu ndo cd. T\i cdi DN cfla Mai, ta dd hinh dung mii quan hf gifta nhftng con ngudi iy vdi nhau nhu flie ndo: fing, bi, me, dl Mfy, chfl San, fliim Ba,...Id dugc nhhi tft Mai, ttong mii quan hf vdi Mai,... 3.3. Ngirdi ki chuydn vi nhdn v^ NKC cd flii ding nhit vdi nhdn vft khi NKC xung "tfii" tudng mmh ttong tiuyfn. Cd hai ttudng hgp xdy ra: 1) NKC xung "tfii" ki chuyfn ngudi khdc, chdng h?n Thuin trong Tudng vi huu cfta Nguyin Huy Thifp; 2) NKC xung "tfii" ki chuyfn cila chfah mmh nhu nhdn vft "tfii" trong Hdii thien duang, Miia ddng dm dp cfla Nguyto Thi Thu Huf Id diin htoh cho sy ding nhat Si4(246)-2016 NG6N NGC & Ddi S6NG 85 gifta NKC vd nhan vft. Nhftng tmyfn ndy chi cd mfit NKC duy nhit. 3.4. Ngtedi ki chuyfn vd hdnh vi ki Hdnh vi cfla NKC Id hdnh vi ki, hdnh vi ti, hdnh vi bfah lufn, hdnh vi trich din. Nhu vfy, truyen ki se bao gfim diin ngfin cfla ngudi ki vd diin ngfin cfla cdc nhdn vft. Tftc li, khi tiuyf n dugc ki ra nghia Id chflng ta sS nhta hofc nghe thiy d dd tiii gidi dugc ki ra va flii gidi dugc tiJch din. Do vfy, trong tmyfn neu cd Idi ki cfta mgt nhdn vft ndo dd thi cin phai xem xft xem Idi ki dd thugc vi Idi gidn tiip, tftc Id diin ngon cfla mft NKC laSt hai hay khfing hay chi Id diin ngfin cfla cac nhfn vat - dien ngfin dugc trich din. Vi dy, truyfn Sdm hdi mudn cfla Lf Cfing, todn bf Idi ki cfla nhan vft Thing la Idi ki ciia NKC ding thdi Id nhdn vgt chlnh trong cdu chuyfn, hii tudng, dn nan, sdm hii vdi qud khft khfing miy tit dpp cfla minh. Dogn cuii dugc ki bod mfit NKC ximg "tfii" khdc. Hdu thien dudng (sdd) cimg vfy, todn bfi cdu chuyfn Id Idi ki cfta nhfn vft tfii ki vi chinh cuf c ddi minh. Doan cuii cfing dugc ki bdi NKC flift hai - NKC hdm in: "Cd tieng ti vi cda nhd chft: ""... Cd gdi ngin mft khS rimg minh. - Anh oi. Lgi gid rii. Ngudi ddn fing ning xong cic cd phfi, vf dd khdi. Lgi qudng tay fim liy cfi gdi. Hg lai chim di ttong nhiing ny hfin, mdc nhftng con gid Ignh buit dang vft vd quanh minh.". Trong khi dd, d VS dieu dia ngifc cfla Vo Thi Hdo till diin ngfin cfta nhdn vft "ndng" - "Ld thu tuyft mfnh" la diin ngfin cfla nhdn vft, thufc thi gidi dugc trich din. ''Ndng" khong phdi Id NKC ttong tdc phim. VU di^u dfa nglfc chi CO mft NKC - chdng ti^ 19 tuoi xung "tfii" ma thfii. 3.5. Ngirdi ki chuyfn vd gipng Truyfn ki trudc hit Id mft gigng, ndi vdi chflng ta cdi sy kifn phdt ra thong difp dd. Gigng cd thi biiu hifn theo nhiiu cdch thftc khdc nhau, hofc bgc If tivc tiep, hofc che giiu, hofc xdc djnh hofc khfing xdc dinh,... Dfl thi ndo thi trong mgi trudng hgp nd phdi ldm thi ndo di ngudi dgc cfing cd thi nhfn ra ai Id kfi dang ndi ttong tdc phim [3]. Sy kifn, phdt ngfin vin cd thi biin dii, NKC d mgt thdi diim ndo dd cd flii ty xda mtah di vd nhudng Idi cho ngudi khdc. Cho nfin gigng cung Id mft cdn eft di xdc dinh ai Id NKC ttong tdc phim. Gigng dugc biiu hifn qua cdc htoh thftc Idi ki nhu sau: - Ldi ki mfit gigng: Ld Idi ki hudng tdi sy vft, nhdm tdi hifn, gidi thifu vi nd. Vi dy : Thud dy chua cd vU try, chua co mudn vgt vd loai ngudi. Trdi ddt chl la mdt ddm hdn dgn, tdi tdm vd lanh ISo [Nguyin Ding Chi, Thdn tiy ti-di]. Day Id logi ldi ki don gidn nhat vd ci xua nhat, chi don thuin cd gigng cfla ngudi ki vd hudng tdi duy nhit mft dii tugng Id sy vft, hifn tugng dugc tdi hifn. Truyfn ki cd ldi ki mfit gigng thi duong nhifn Id c6 mft NKC. - Ldi ki nhiiu gigng: Ld ldi ki vfta hudng vdo tdi hifn doi tugng, lgi vfta dii thogi ngim vdi ldi ngudi khdc ngodi dii tugng, hofc dii thogi ngim vdi chinh dii tugng. Bakhtme cho ddy Id loai Idi phdt triin nhit. Ldi nhieu gigng cd mfit so dgng thudng gdp: + Ldi vdn nhgi: Ld ldi vdn ndi bdng gigng ngudi khdc, cd dua vdo dd mft khuynh hudng nghia dii Ifp hdn vdi khuynh hudng cfta Idi ngudi do. Trudng hgp ndy cd thi cd nhiiu NKC. + Ldi vdn phong cdch hda: Ld Idi trin thuft bdng gigng ngudi khdc md cflng khuynh hudng n ^ a , cflng chiiu vdi ldi gigng iy di tgo sdc thdi, khong khi cd thi. (Ngudi d bin sdng Chdu mugn Idi Mai di ttan thuft: mugn gigng nhdn vft). Trudng hgp ndy co bdn Id chl c6 mgt NKC. + Ldi niia tryc tiip: Ld ldi tran thuft ndi thay y nghl nhfn vft, nhdm bfic If ngi tdm nhfn vft Vi dy : Mj sl dn cho chit ngay! Khdng buon nhd lgi niia,... Trudng hgp ndy, tiing Idng thin thftc cfla Mi, y ngM ngi tdm cfla Mi dugc NKC ndi ra cho dfc gid biet. Cho nfn cd hai gigng 86 NG6N NGC & Bin S6NG Si4(246)-2016 nhung chi mgt ngudi ndi Id NKC cdn mft ngudi nghl Id Mi. Mi khfing phdi Id ngudi ndi, khong phdi NKC. - Ldi ke theo ngfii flift nhit xung "tfii": Loai ldi ki ndy vin thufic dgng Idi tryc tiip, vi id ldi cfla nhdn vft. Nhung xft vi chftc ndng ttin thuft thi nd cd tfah gidn tiip tftc Id Idi cfla NKC. Bakhtine xip logi Idi ki ndy vdo logi hai gigng ding hudng. Thuc ra tinh tryc tiep d ddy mang tinh ude If. Nhd vdn mugn tinh tryc tiip nhu mgt diem nhta trin fliuft (ttuyfn cd tfah chat ty tiruyfn, flii fliu tin, thi nhft ki hodc ngudi chftng kiin ki chuyfn). Cho nfn trudng hgp ndy ciing chi cd mgt NKC. 4. Kit lufn NKC Id chft thi ndi, chft thi cfta hdnh vi ki tiong diin ngfin truyfn ki song thyc chit anh ta cfing Id mft logi nlidn vft dugc tdc gid hu ciu, diing ldm cfing cy giup minh t i chtrc mfit tdc phan ty sy. VI vfy, vin di NKC fliuf c vi kl thuft ki chuyfn, kl fliuft to chftc tdc phim. Sy da.difn mgo cfla anh ta, sy biiu hifn phftc tgp ciia anh ta trong truyfn ki chlnh la di phyc vy cho nghf thuft ki chuyfn. Xdc iflnh dftng NKC ttong tniyfn Id rit quan trgng di nhfn ra dugc phdn ndo gid hi nghf thuft cfla tdc phim. TAI L I $ U THAM K H A O 1. D 5 Hftu Chdu (2001), Bgi cuang ngdn nga hgc,T.2, Nxb Gido dye, Hd Ngi. 2. Hodng DI Dtah (2015), Ngdn rigit trdn thugt vd y thiic phe binh nam quyen trong truy$n ngdn "VU di$u dja ngyc", Tgp chi Ngfin ngft & Ddi sing, si 9/2015. 3. Giad Vigner (1979), Bgc: tii vdn bdn din ^ nghia, tdi lifu djch cfla D 5 Hftu Chdu. 4. Cao Ktei Lan (2015), TVic gid hdm dn tiong til tic hgc tiiu thuyit, Nxb Vdn hgc. 5. D 5 Hdi Phong (1996), Vdn di ngudl ki chuyen ti-ong sdng tdc cua M. BoxtolexM, Tdm tdt lufn dn PTS. Ngft vdn, Volgagrad. (Tdi lifu dich cfta Dmh Tigng Lac). 6. R.Barflies, W.Kayser, W.C.Booth, PhHamon (1977), Thi phdp hgc tiTiy^n ki (Poitique du ricit, Edition du Seuil - TJi lifu dich cfta Dtah Trgng Lgc vd Nguyin Thdi Hod). 7. Nguyin Thj Thu Thuy (2002), VikhM infm "truy$n ki a ngdi thii ba" vd "nguU ki chuy$n 6 ngdi thi bcT, Tgp chl Ngfin ngj si 9. 8. Nguyen Thi Thu Thfly (2003;, Ngdn nga ki chi^n trong tiuyen ngdn Vl$t Nam sau 1975 (Biem nhln vd ngdn ngii ki chuyen), Lufn dn Tiin si Ngft vSn, Tnidng DHSP HdNfi. 9. Tzvetan Todorov (1973), Thi phip hgc cdu tnic, Trin Duy Chdu dich (Trich tii cfing trinh ciia nhiiu tdc gid: ( '^est-co-que le structuralisme?. Edition du Seoul - Paris. 10. R.E.Asher (Editor fa chief) (1994), The encyclopedia of language and linguistics, Vo.7, Univeisity of Edmbmgh, UK. 11. W.Bright (Editor ta chief) (1992), International encyclopedia of linguistics, Vo. 3, New York Oxford, Oxford UniversHy Press. 12. K.Wales (1989), A Bictionary of stylistics, Longman-London-New York. NGU6NNGCLI|;D 13. Nguyin Mtah Chdu (1999), Ti^n tgp tnty$n ngdn Nguyin Minh Chdu, Nxb Vdn hgc, HdNfi. 14. V6ThiHdo(200I), Fiiifi^ ttiJ/angiic ttong Truyen ngdn bdn cdy bat nS..., Bii Vift Thing tiiyen chgn, gidi flrifu, Nxb Vdn hgc. 15. Nhiiu tdc gid (1999), TyifVlBfag^ c^ ngdn, TC Thi gidi Mdi, Nxb Vdn n ^ 4 HCM. ' 16. Nhiiu tdc gid (2000) Nhiing guang mgt vdn xudi thi ki cudi the MXX, t.I, Nxb Hgi nhd vdn. Ha Nfi. 17. Hi Anh Thdi (2007), Muai le m$l ^Sm, Nxb Dd Ndng. i 18. Nguyin Huy Thifp (1999), Afc , nhiing nggn gid, Nxb Vdn hgc, Hd Nfi.

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