Bài giảng Systems Analysis and Design - Chapter 11: Designing Effective Output

Output - Print, display, audio, microforms, CD-ROMs or DVDs, and Web-based documents Output design objectives – design output to serve the intended human and organizational purpose to fit the user to deliver the right quantity of output to deliver it to the right place to provide output on time to choose the right output method Output content is related to output method. Output technologies differ in: speed cost portability flexibility accessibility storage retrieval Presentation of output Be aware of the sources of bias Design of output that includes users Working with users so that they are informed of the output's biases Creating output that is flexible and allows users to modify limits and ranges Train users to rely on multiple output for conducting "reality tests" on system output Printed reports design templates drag and drop interfaces Display output aesthetics usefulness important to produce prototypes of screens and Web documents to interact with them and make changes where desired.

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Designing Effective OutputSystems Analysis and Design, 7eKendall & Kendall11© 2008 Pearson Prentice HallLearning ObjectivesUnderstand the objectives for effective output designRelate output content to output methods inside and outside the organizational contextRealize how output bias affects usersDesign display outputDesign tabular and graphic output for users interacting with decision support systemsDesign a Web site for ecommerce2OutputInformation delivered to usersOutput formsHard-copy - printed reportsSoft-copy - computer screens, microforms, and audioTo create output, the analyst works interactively with the user until the output is satisfactory3Major TopicsDesigning outputOutput technologiesFactors in choosing an output technologyReport designScreen designWeb site design4Output Design ObjectivesServe a specific user or organizational purposeMeaningful to the userDeliver the appropriate quantity of outputMake sure the output is where it is neededProvide output on timeChoosing the right output method5Relating Output Content to MethodContent of output must be considered as interrelated to the output methodExternal – going outside the businessInternal – staying within the business6External OutputExamples:Utility billsAdvertisementsPaychecksDiffers from internal output in:DistributionDesignAppearance7Internal OutputExamples:Summary reportsDetailed reportsHistorical reportsException reportsMight consist of material available on an intranet8Output TechnologiesPrintersDisplay screenAudio output and PodcastsDVD, CD-ROM and CD-RWElectronic output9PrintersThe trend in printers is toward increased flexibilityKey factors of printers:ReliabilityCompatibility with software and hardwareManufacturing support10Display ScreenAdvantages:Result in cost savingsMay be desirable from the user’s standpointEasier to keep up to dateDisadvantages:Different screen resolutionsFonts11Video, Audio, and AnimationVideoCombines the impact of audio with a visual channelAudioTransient, usually output for the benefit of one userAnimationThe presentation of different images in a series, one at a time12Video ClipsSupplementing static, printed outputDistance collaborationShowing how to perform an actionProviding brief training episodesShifting the time of an actual event by recording it for later outputPreserving an important occasion13AudioSoundMusicSound effectsTelephonePodcasting Technique of putting downloadable voice files on the Web as RSS files14AnimationAnimation is composed of four elements:Elemental symbolsSpatial orientationTransition effectsAlteration effects15CD-ROMs and DVDsLess vulnerable to damage from human handlingCan include full-color text and graphics as well as audio and video16Electronic OutputElectronic mail (email)FaxesBulletin board messages17RSS (Really Simple Syndication)A way of gathering and distributing news and other content from multiple sourcesRSS news readers can either stand alone or be integrated with your browser as plug-insHas the advantage of efficiently organizing news and other information from a variety of sources chosen by the user18Push and Pull TechnologyPull technology allows the user to take formatted data from the WebPush technology sends solicited or unsolicited information to a customer or client19Figure 11.2 A comparison of output methods20Factors to Consider When Choosing Output TechnologyWho will use the outputHow many people need the outputWhere is the output neededWhat is the purposeWhat is the speed with which output is neededHow frequently will the output be accessedHow long will the output be storedRegulations depicting output produced, stored, and distributedInitial and ongoing costs of maintenance and suppliesHuman and environmental requirements21Output BiasAnalysts must avoid unnecessarily biasing output and make users aware of the possible biases in outputBias is introduced in three main ways:How information is sortedSetting of acceptable limitsChoice of graphics22Avoiding Bias in the Design OutputBe aware of the sources of biasDesign of output that includes usersWorking with users so that they are informed of the output's biasesCreating output that is flexible and allows users to modify limits and rangesTrain users to rely on multiple output for conducting "reality tests" on system output23Designing Printed OutputDetailed Reports Print a report line for every record on the master fileException reportsPrint a line for all records that match a certain conditionSummary reportsPrint one line for a group of records and are used to make decisions24Report Design ConventionsConstant information remains the same whenever the report is printedVariable information can vary each time the report is printedPaper quality, type, and size25Designing Printed ReportsFunctional attributesStylistic and aesthetic considerationsWell organized26Designing Output for DisplaysKeep the display simpleKeep the presentation consistentFacilitate user movement among displayed outputCreate an attractive and pleasing display27Graphical Output in Screen DesignThe purpose of the graph The kind of data to be displayedThe audienceThe effects on the audience of different kinds of graphical output28DashboardsMake sure the data has contentDisplay the proper amount of summarization and precisionChoose appropriate performance measures for displayPresent data fairlyChoose the correct style of graph or chart for displayUse well-designed display mediaLimit the variety of item typesHighlight important dataArrange the data in meaningful groupsKeep the screen unclutteredKeep the entire dashboard on a single screenAllow flexibility29Widgets and GadgetsCan be any type of a program that may be useful to any person interacting with a computerCan empower users to take part in design of their own desktop30Designing a Web SiteUse professional toolsStudying other sitesUse Web resourcesExamine the sites of professional Web site designersUse the tools you’ve learnedConsult the booksExamine poorly designed Web pages31Designing a Web Site (Continued)Creating Web templates Style sheets allow you to format all Web pages in a site consistentlyUsing plug-ins, audio, and video sparingly32Designing a Web Site (Continued)Plan ahead, pay attention to:StructureContentTextGraphicsPresentations styleNavigationPromotion33StructureOne of the most important steps in developing a professional Web siteEach page in the Web structure should have a distinct messageCan benefit from using Web site diagramming and mapping tools34ContentWithout anything to say, your Web site will failAppropriate content is needed to keep the user interestedUse a metaphor or images that provide metaphor for your siteShould include a FAQ pageMay take advantage of prewritten software35TextEach Web page should have a titlePlace meaningful words in the first sentence appearing on your Web pageClear writing is important36GraphicsUse either JPEG or GIF formatsKeep the background simple and readableCreate a few professional-looking graphics for use on your pagesKeep images small and reuse bullet or navigational buttonsInclude text in what is called an ALT attribute for images and image hot spotsExamine your Web site on a variety of displays and screen resolutions37Presentation StyleProvide a home pageKeep the number of graphics to a reasonable minimumUse large and colorful fonts for headingsUse interesting images and buttons for linksUse CSS to control the formatting and layout of the Web page38Presentation Style (Continued)Use divisions and cascading styles or tables to enhance a layoutUse the same graphics image on several Web pagesUse Javascript to enhance Web page layoutAvoid overusing animation, sound, and other elements39NavigationThe three-clicks rulePromote the Web siteEncourage your viewers to bookmark your site40PromotionPromote your siteSubmit often to search enginesInclude key words in metatagsEncourage your readers to bookmark your Web site41Creating Blogs (Web Logs)Permalink specific for the blog postThe headline or title of the postThe primary linkAn optional summaryThe blog text or commentaryAn optional imageA block quoteLinks for comments from other peopleOther blog software features42Output Production and XMLAn XML document may be transformed into different output media typesMethods:Extensible Style Language Transformations (XSLT)AjaxCascading style sheets (CSS)43Extensible Style Language Transformations (XSLT) XSLT allows you to:Select XML elementsSort sequenceSelection of data44Figure 11.21 Extensible style language transformation (XSLT) software can be used to make XML documents and transform them into many different formats for a variety of platforms45AjaxUses both JavaScript and XML to obtain small amounts of data from a server without leaving the Web pageThe user does not have to wait for a new Web page to display after making a selection46Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)CSS allows you to specify the font family, size, color, border and so onStyles may vary for different media, such as display, print, or handheld devicesStyles do not allow you to manipulate the data47SummaryOutputOutput design objectivesOutput contentOutput technologiesPresentation of outputPrinted reportsDisplay output48

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