Xã hội học - Vehicle thefts and related offenses

Examples would include but not be limited to: Insured has lived at current address less than six months Insured’s address is a PO box or mail drop Vehicle was purchased with case with no bill of sale

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FIFTEENVehicle Thefts and Related OffensesLEARNING OBJECTIVESIdentify types of motor vehicle theftBe familiar with techniques for disposing of stolen motor vehiclesDescribe challenges associated with the theft investigation of heavy equipment and farm equipmentIdentify major investigative resourcesDiscuss methods for assisting in the identification of a recovered vehicleList and explain several vehicle theft fraud indicatorsDescribe vehicle fire investigation methodsExplain vehicle and equipment theft prevention approachesAssess title and registration issues related to marine theftDiscuss aircraft and avionics theft and relevant identification and investigative techniques.15-1AUTO THEFT It has been estimated that approximately two percent of reported thefts are of motorcyclesNational and international rings operate, particularly in cities near ports, to export vehiclesSince the collapse of communism in eastern Europe, the theft of motor vehicles has skyrocketedThe theft of airbags and the resale of stolen salvaged airbags is becoming epidemic15-2TYPES OF THEFT Motor vehicle thefts generally fall into one of four categories: temporary theft, joy riding, professional theft or fraudTemporary theft. The term temporary theft is used not to imply that the crime is not serious but, rather, to distinguish joyriding from something more ominous.Joyriding. Joyriders are most often teenagers - 15 to 19 years old - who steal a car simply to drive and then abandon it.Professional Theft. The professional car thief is motivated by very high profits and generally low risk. Fraud. These various types of crimes are generally committed by the owner, and the underlying purpose is to profit at the expense of an insurance company.15-3TECHNIQUES TO DISPOSE OF STOLEN VEHICLESChop Shops. Very simply, a chop shop is a place where stolen vehicles are disassembled for resale of their parts. Quick Strip. A vehicle is stolen and stripped mainly for valuable accessories such as seats, stereos, car phones, and tires.Salvage Switch. To the criminal the value of a salvaged vehicle is far greater than its parts. Export. Vehicles manufactured in the United States are extremely popular in other countries.Fraud B in General. Fraudulent auto theft claims are not the only type of fraud to which the insurance industry is subjected, but it is a significant part.15-4CHOP SHOPSInside Chop Shops:Stolen vehicles are cut apartParts are sold to repair shopsParts are also sold to salvage yards15-5(Courtesy National Insurance Crime Bureau)FRAUDULENT THEFT SCHEMESFraudulent auto theft claim schemes fall into three major categories:False-Vehicle SchemesFalse-Theft SchemesInflated-Theft Loss SchemesDefrauding the Owner and Insurer15-6FALSE-VEHICLE SCHEME The insuring of and subsequent reported theft of a vehicle that never existed15-7FALSE-THEFT SCHEME A reported vehicle theft that may in reality be an attempted insurance fraud by hiding, disposing of or giving up the vehicle15-8PROBLEMS RELATING TO THEFT OF OFF-ROAD EQUIPMENTThere are numerous problems relating to the theft of off-road equipmentAbsence of titling and registration requirements The lack of a uniform vehicle identification numbering system The lack of an effective inventory control system by the equipment owners15-9(a)PROBLEMS RELATING TO THEFT OF OFF-ROAD EQUIPMENT (cont'd)Until recently there were no permanent ID numbers on off-road equipment.Unfamiliarity of most law enforcement officers with the:natureidentityterminology of heavy equipment15-9(b)ILLUSTRATIONS OF HEAVY CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTTheft of heavy construction equipmentMore than 2,500 pieces of this equipment are stolen each yearTitle or registration of this equipment is not mandatoryThe value of these pieces of equipment make them lucrative targets for thieves15-10COMMERCIAL VEHICLE AND CARGO THEFT As noted earlier, the insurance industry pays out about $18 million a year for commercial vehicle theftIn actuality, it is difficult to convert this figure to numbers of vehicles because commercial vehicle theft statistics are part of the overall motor vehicle theft numbersThe theft of cargo from or in commercial vehicles is a rapidly growing criminal enterprise15-11INVESTIGATIVE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Major Investigative ResourcesNational Insurance Crime BureauCanadian Insurance Crime Prevention Bureau. The Canadian Insurance Crime Prevention Bureau is to Canada what NICB is to the United States.International Association of Auto Theft Investigators. Another resource available to the investigator is the International Association of Auto Theft Investigators.State Organizations15-12(a)INVESTIGATIVE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES (cont'd) State OrganizationsNational Crime Information CenterSpecial Investigative UnitsAAMVANETGovernment AgenciesManufacturers15-12(b)INVESTIGATIVE TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES (cont'd) North American Export CommitteeNational Equipment Register15-12(c)VEHICLE IDENTIFICATIONOften the most difficult and time-consuming task facing an investigator is the identification of a recovered vehicleFederal Safety Certification Label. All cars distributed in the United States since 1970 must have a federal safety certification label. Federal Legislation. In an effort to reduce auto theft by easing the process of vehicle identification, Congress enacted the Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Act of 1984. 15-13(a)VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION (cont'd)VIN Editing and Reconstruction. In any investigation, even where it appears that the VIN has not been altered or defaced, it is incumbent on the investigator to check the validity of the identifying numbers. VIN Restoration. The restoration of manufacturers’ serial numbers altered or obliterated from metal is a process that can be performed by an investigator with the proper material at hand. 15-13(b)EXAMPLE OF 17 DIGIT VIN SYSTEMVehicle Identification numbering systemsis an individualized means of identifying a motor vehicleit involves 17 characters for all U.S. made cars15-141 G 1 A W 69 K 2 C R 133183Nation of originManufacturer symbolMakeCar lineRestraintBody typeEngine symbolCheck digitModel yearAssembly plantSequential production numberSTOLEN VEHICLE INDICATORS The thorough investigator will become suspicious enough from the presence of certain indicators to pursue an investigation to determine if auto theft has occurredThe indicators relate to the condition of the vehicle and/or the suspicious driver's behaviorsMissing or damaged ignition locksDamaged doors, glove compartment or trunkBroken or missing window glass15-15(a)STOLEN VEHICLE INDICATORS (cont'd)Operating at night without lightsBeing pushed or towed at nightPry marksHidden or parked in a remote area15-15(b)STOLEN VEHICLE INDICATORS (cont'd)Missing parts or accessoriesA nervous driverA driver unfamiliar with the operationA driver wearing gloves in warm weather15-15(c)INVESTIGATION OF FRAUD CASESGenerally, the investigation of a motor vehicle fraudulent insurance claim case will center around questions involving the insured, the insurance policy, identification information on the vehicle, the police report, the status of the certificate of title, the condition of the vehicle, and any unusual conditions surrounding the claim. 15-16VEHICLE THEFT FRAUD INDICATORSExamples would include but not be limited to: Insured has lived at current address less than six monthsInsured’s address is a PO box or mail dropVehicle was purchased with case with no bill of sale15-17(a)VEHICLE THEFT FRAUD INDICATORS (cont'd)Vehicle has an incorrect VIN.Loss occurs within one month of issue or expiration of policyPolice Report is not made by insured or has been delayedSalvage yard or repair garage takes unusual interest in claimAppraiser has difficulty in getting into the body shop to view and estimate damage15-17(b)INVESTIGATION OF VEHICLE FIRES Inspection of SalvageExternal InspectionInternal Inspection15-18(a)INVESTIGATION OF VEHICLE FIRES (cont'd) Inspection of the fuel systemInspection of the Electrical SystemInspection of the Motor, Radiator, and Parts Under and Near the HoodInspection of the Body15-18(b)VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION TECHNIQUESSome devices used to deter auto theft include:Audible alarm systemsThe boot under a front tireCollars over steering column bowlsDecal alert systems that specify when the vehicle should not be driven15-19(a)(Courtesy Citizens for Auto-Theft Responsibility—C.A.R., Inc.)VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION TECHNIQUES (cont'd)Fuel shut-off devicesSteering column ignition locksProtective caps that cover ignitionsTransponders in the ignition that must be run electronically15-19(b)A COLLARThe collar is:used to deter auto theftmade of steel or alloyis attached to the steering column bowl to stop penetration15-20(Courtesy Citizens for Auto-Theft Responsibility—C.A.R., Inc.)EQUIPMENT THEFT PREVENTION TECHNIQUESExamples of techniques used to prevent the theft of heavy or farm equipment include:Security devices such as ignition locksDo not leave keys in any equipmentPhotograph all equipmentLeave equipment in well-lit areas15-21MARINE THEFT Scope of the ProblemMarine theft is a serious problem to the boating communityIt includes the theft of boats, boat trailers, outboard motors, jet skis, and all equipment associated with boating or water activitiesHull IdentificationEffective November 1, 1972, the Federal Boating Safety Act of 1971 required boats to have a 12 character hull identification number15-22TITLE & REGISTRATION ISSUES RELATED TO MARINE THEFTOver 30 states require that boats be titled, but only a few states require the titling of outboard motorsMany boats are exempt from titling due to length or horsepowerMany jurisdictions don’t have computerized registration systemsRegistration files in only a few states can be accessed using the National Law Enforcement Telecommunication System15-23MARINE POLICEMarine theft is a serious problem and includes stealing of:boatstrailersoutboard motorsall equipment associated with boating15-24© Bonnie Kamin)AIRCRAFT AND AVIONICS THEFTScope of the problem:Not as prevalent as theft of motor vehicles.Theft of aircraft equipment if very lucrativeInvestigation ResourcesInvestigators should contact airport management, aircraft companies, etc. to learn about avionicsObtain as much information as possible before conducting a major avionics investigation15-25(a)AIRCRAFT AND AVIONICS THEFT (cont'd)Aircraft Identification:Have same basic identification information as do motor vehiclesHave registration number similar to license platesHave a VINHave a make and model15-25(b)

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