Xã hội học - The evolution of criminal investigation and criminalistics

N.Y.P.D. established Rogues' Gallery in 1857 Photographs of known offenders were included Photos were arranged by their criminal specialty and height Used by detectives to recognize criminals on the street

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ONEThe Evolution of Criminal Investigation and CriminalisticsLEARNING OBJECTIVESExplain the importance of the Bow Street RunnersDiscuss the contribution of Sir Robert Peel’s reform to early policing in the United StatesExplain the history and function of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency Highlight the first major federal investigative agencies and their responsibilities Explain the impact of Supreme Court's "due process revolution" and its impact on policing Discuss Bertillon’s method of anthropometry Summarize the historical development of fingerprint identification Explain the concept and practice of DNA typing Outline the milestones in the development of firearms identification1-1THE BOW STREET RUNNERSSmall group of volunteers/non-uniformed homeowners Established in 1750 by Henry Fielding/called "Take Thieves"Hurry to scene of crime and begin investigationFirst modern detective force1-2SIR ROBERT PEELHis efforts led to the establishment of a Metropolitan police force for LondonPeel is considered the father of modern policingMany of his reforms are part of policing today in AmericaPeel was considered a skillful administrator with vision1-3PEEL’S PRINCIPLESThe police must be stable, efficient, organized along military lines.The police must be under government control. The absence of crime best proves efficiency of police. The distribution of crime news is essential. The deployment of police strength over time and area is essential. No quality is more indispensable to a police officer than a perfect command of temper. 1-4(a)PEEL’S PRINCIPLES (cont'd)Good appearance commands respect. Securing and training proper people is the root of efficiency. Public security demands every police officer be given a number. Police headquarters should be centrally located/easily accessible. Police should be hired on a probationary basis. Police records are necessary to the correctly distribute police strength.1-4(b)DETECTIVES IN THE U.S. EVOLVED IN THE PRIVATE SECTORGraft/corruption common in big city police departmentsMunicipal police jurisdictions were limited.Little communication between police departments in different cities.Offenders could flee from one jurisdiction to anotherPrivate sector detectives like Pinkerton’s developed 1-5PINKERTON AT WORKProtected President-elect LincolnOperated an intelligence service for the union armyPursued bank and railroad robbersCreated extensive criminal recordsProvided a good model for government detectives 1-6(Courtesy Pinkerton’s Archives)EARLY FEDERAL INVESTIGATIVE AGENCIES1865 Secret Service created to combat counterfeiting1903 After assassination of McKinley responsibility for presidential protection was added1908 Bureau of Investigation became F.B.I. 1924/Hover1920 Internal Revenue responsible for Prohibition enforcement1-7DUE PROCESS REVOLUTIONCases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court, 1961-1966Known as due process revolutionActive in cases involving rights of suspects/defendantsMiranda, Mapp v. Ohio, Terry decisions impact police1-8NYPD ROGUES’ GALLERYN.Y.P.D. established Rogues' Gallery in 1857Photographs of known offenders were includedPhotos were arranged by their criminal specialty and heightUsed by detectives to recognize criminals on the street1-9(Courtesy Library of Congress)ANTHROPOMETRYFirst method of criminal identification thought to be reliable; based on a criteria of body measurementsDeveloped by Bertillon (1853-1916)/father of criminal identificationAfter 1883 the system was adopted throughout EuropeSystem was abandoned because dactylography (fingerprint identification) simpler, more reliable 1-10HENRY BERTILLON AND A BERTILLON MEASUREMENT1-11(Courtesy Jacques Ganthial)(Courtesy Library of Congress)MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DACTYLOGRAPHY 1684 England’s Dr. Grew observes pores and ridges in hands and feet1823 Perkinje develops nine standard fingerprint patterns and classification system1892 Galton publishes “Fingerprints,” first definitive book on dactylography1894 Vucetich publishes “Dictiloscopia Comparada”, outlining his system1-12(a)MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DACTYLOGRAPHY (Cont.) 1900 The Henry system was adopted in England1901 Henry publishes “Classification and Use of Fingerprints,” outlining his system of fingerprint classification1903 The Will West/William West case demonstrates the superiority of dactylography to anthropometry1-12(b)DNADeoxyribonucleic Acid, chemical blueprint which determines everything from our hair color to our disease vulnerabilities; with the exception of identical twins, each person has a unique DNA makeupDNA is unique to individualsThe human sources of DNA are: blood and tissue; spermatozoa; bone marrow, tooth pulp and hair root cells1-13DNA TYPINGDNA is a chemical blueprintThe Enderby cases were the first use DNA typing in England in 1987The Orlando cases were the first used in the U.S. in1986The FBI crime lab was the first public lab to use DNA analysis in 19881-14MILESTONES IN FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION1835 Henry Goddard First successful murderer identification from bullet removed from victim’s body1889 Professor Lacassagne identified grooves on a removed bullet removed from a corpse and matched it to a suspect’s weapon1898 Jeserich took microphotographs of fatal and test bullets He testified the defendant’s revolver fired the fatal bullet1926 Calvin Goddard was most responsible for raising firearm identification to a science1-15

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