Software Process Improvement SEII - Lecture 25

CMMI Continuous as well as staged model CMMI capability levels Incomplete, performed, managed, defined, quantitatively managed, optimized Example – process area Specific goals and practices, general goals and practices Other SPI frameworks SPICE, Bootstrap, TickIT, PSP, TSP SPI return on investment SPI trends

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Software Process Improvement SEII-Lecture 25Dr. Muzafar KhanAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Computer ScienceCIIT, Islamabad.RecapSoftware process improvementFramework for SPISPI support groups, maturity and immaturity modelsAssessment and gap analysisEducation and trainingSelection and justificationInstallation / migrationEvaluationRisk managementCritical success factors2CMMIUpgraded CMM as a complete frameworkComprehensive process meta-model“continuous” model“staged” modelDifferent process areasProject planning, requirements management etc.Each process area is defined in terms of specific goals and practices3CMMI Process Area Capability Profile4Figure source: Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, R. S. Pressman, 7th ed., p. 798CMMI Capability Levels [1/2]Level-0, IncompleteThe process area is either not performed or does not achieve all goals and objectives defined by level-1Level-1, PerformedSpecified goals of the process area are satisfiedWork tasks required are conductedLevel-2, ManagedLevel-1 criteria are satisfiedWork conforms to organizationally defined policyPeople have adequate resourcesStakeholders are actively involvedWork tasks and products are monitored, controlled, and reviewed5CMMI Capability Levels [2/2]Level-3, DefinedLevel-2 criteria are achievedTailored process based on organization’s standardContribution to process assetsLevel-4, Quantitatively managedLevel-3 criteria are satisfiedQuantitative assessment to control and improve the process areaLevel-5, OptimizedLevel-4 criteria are achievedOptimization using statistical meansContinuous process improvement6Example – Process Area [1/4]Project planningSG 1 Establish estimatesSP 1.1 Estimate the scope of the projectSP 1.2 Establish estimate of work product and task attributesSP 1.3 Define project life cycleSP 1.4 Determine estimates for effort and costSG 2 Develop a project planSP 2. 1 Establish the budget and scheduleSP 2.2 Identify project risksSP 2.3 Plan for data managementSP 2.4 Plan for project resources7Example – Process Area [2/4]SP 2.5 Plan for needed knowledge and skillsSP 2.6 Plan stakeholder InvolvementSP 2.7 Establish the project planSG 3 Obtain commitment to the planSP 3.1 Review plans that affect the projectSP 3.2 Reconcile work and resource levelsSP 3.3 Obtain plan CommitmentGG I Achieve specific goalsGP 1.1 perform base practices8Example – Process Area [3/4]GG 2 Institutionalize a managed processGP 2.1 Establish an organizational policyGP 2.2 Plan the processGP 2.3 Provide resourcesGP 2.4 Assign responsibilityGP 2.5 Train peopleGP 2.6 Manage configurationsGP 2.7 Identify and involve relevant stakeholdersGP 2.8 Monitor and control the processGP 2.9 Objectively evaluate adherenceGP 2.10 Review status with higher-level management9Example – Process Area [4/4]GG 3 Institutionalize a defined processGP 3.1 Establish a defined processGP 3.2 Collect improvement informationGG 4 Institutionalize a quantitatively managed processGP 4.1 Establish Quantitative Objectives GP 4.2 Stabilize sub process performanceGG 5 Institutionalize an optimizing processGP 5.1 Ensure continuous process improvementGP 5.2 Collect root causes of problems10The People CMM [1/2]Process without peopleRoadmap for implementing workforce practicesContinuous improvement generic workforce knowledge (core competencies) Specific SE and project management skills (workforce competencies)Process-related abilitiesFive organizational maturity levelsIt complements any SPI frameworkWorkforce atmosphere to attract, develop, and retain outstanding talent11The People CMM [2/2]12Figure source: Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, R. S. Pressman, 7th ed., p. 802SPICE and BootstrapSoftware Process Improvement and Capability dEterminationSupport ISO’s process assessmentModel for process managementGuidelines for conducting an assessment and rating the process under considerationConstruction, selection, and use of assessment instruments and toolsTraining for assessorsBootstrapConformance with SPICEEvaluation of software process using SE best practicesProcess maturity level13TickITAuditing method for ISO 9000:2001“Plan-do-check-act” cyclePlanProcess objectives, activities, and tasksDoImplementation of software processCheckMonitor and measure the processActSoftware process improvement activitiesTickIT is used throughout the cycle14Personal Software Process [1/2]Every developer uses some processPlanningEstimates for resources, size, and defectsMetrics are recordedDevelopment tasks are identified Project schedule is createdHigh-level designComponent designPrototype development in case of uncertaintyIssues are recorded and trackedHigh-level design reviewFormal verification methods are appliedMetrics are maintained for all important tasks15Personal Software Process [2/2]DevelopmentComponent-level deign is refined and reviewedCode generation and testingMetrics are maintainedPostmortemAnalysis of metrics collectedProcess effectiveness is determinedMeasure and metrics guide for process modification16Team Software ProcessObjectives are Self-directed project teamManager should coach and motivate their teamsProcess improvement by making CMM level-5 behavior normal and expectedImprovement guidance for organizationsFacilitate university teachingMain activitiesProject launchHigh-level designImplementationIntegration and testingPostmortem17SPI Return on InvestmentSubstantial investment in SPIQualitative levelBetter quality filtersBetter change managementLess technical reworkClassic ROI equation ROI = [Σ(benefits) – Σ(costs)]/ Σ(costs) * 100%18SPI TrendsMore failure than success$25,000 - $70,000 cost per personFocus should be on agile approachFocus on the project level rather than organizational levelFew key practices rather than hundredsWeb-based training rather than traditional classroom Cultural change at small level rather than organizational levelCurrent SPI frameworks are basis for better, simpler, and more agile methods19SummaryCMMIContinuous as well as staged modelCMMI capability levelsIncomplete, performed, managed, defined, quantitatively managed, optimizedExample – process areaSpecific goals and practices, general goals and practicesOther SPI frameworksSPICE, Bootstrap, TickIT, PSP, TSPSPI return on investmentSPI trends20

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