Project Management and Information Technology Context SEII - Lecture 2

Complex nature of IT projects/products Status review at each phase Phase exits / kill points Evaluate progress Potential success Compatibility with organizational goals Systems’ view Frequent reviews

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Project Management and Information Technology Context SEII-Lecture 2Dr. Muzafar KhanAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Computer ScienceCIIT, Islamabad.OutlineRecapSystems PhilosophyOrganization framesProject life cycleIT projects and recent trendsProject management process groups2RecapSoftware/ software engineeringIT project failure / investmentProject / programProject and portfolio managementProject management frameworkProject success factorsSuccessful organizations and managersSuggested skills for project managers3Systems PhilosophyNo project done in isolationBroad organizational contextHolistic view / systems thinkingSystems analysisSystems management4Three-Sphere Model 5Figure source: IT Project Management, K. Schwalbe, 6th ed., p. 46Organization Frames [1/2]Structural frameOrganization structureRoles and responsibilitiesCoordination and controlHuman resource frameHarmony between organization’s needs and people’s needs6Organization Frames [2/2]Political frameOrganizational and personal politicsCompetition between groups/individualsPower, leadership, limited resourcesProject supporters and opponentsSymbolic frameSymbols and meaningsOrganization culture7Organizational Structures [1/2]FunctionalConventional structureManagers report to CEOSpecialized staff ProjectProgram managers report to CEOStaff with various skillsMatrixMix of functional and project structuresStrong, balanced, and weak matrix 8Organizational Structures [2/2]9Figure source: IT Project Management, K. Schwalbe, 6th ed., p. 49Organizational Structure and Project10Figure source: IT Project Management, K. Schwalbe, 6th ed., p. 50Organizational Culture [1/2]Set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviorsCause of many problemsSubculturesMain characteristicsMember identityGroup emphasisRisk toleranceConflict tolerance11Organizational Culture [2/2]Main characteristicsReward criteriaUnit integrationOpen-systems focusPeople focusControlMeans-ends orientation12Stakeholder ManagementStakeholdersDirectly involved in the projectInternal to the organizationExternal to the organizationTop managementCompetition for limited resourcesProject manager has to manage relationships13Role of Top Management in Project SuccessAdequate resourcesApproval for unique project needsCooperation from other departmentsCoaching for leadership issuesUse of standards and toolsProject management office14Project Life Cycle [1/3]Various project phasesWork, deliverables, time, team, approval in each phaseIn early phasesLimited resources required High level of uncertaintyMore stakeholders’ influence In middle phases15Project Life Cycle [2/3]In middle phasesLow level of uncertaintyMore resources requiredIn final phaseObjectives achievedFormal customer’s approvalPhases vary in different domains16Project Life Cycle [3/3]17Figure source: IT Project Management, K. Schwalbe, 6th ed., p. 58Product Life CyclesSoftware development projects are subsets of IT projectsSoftware/system development life cycleWaterfall, spiral, incremental (predictive life cycle)Agile models (adaptive software development) 18Management ReviewsComplex nature of IT projects/productsStatus review at each phasePhase exits / kill pointsEvaluate progressPotential successCompatibility with organizational goalsSystems’ viewFrequent reviews19IT ProjectsComplex in natureScaleDomainsProductsResourcesTechnologyTeam members20SummarySystems PhilosophyBusiness, organization, technologyOrganization framesStructure, HR, political, symbolicProject life cycleConcept, development, implementation, close-out21

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