Introduction to Java Programming - Chapter 17: Exceptions and Assertions

Creating Custom Exception Classes  Use the exception classes in the API whenever possible.  Create custom exception classes if the predefined classes are not sufficient.  Declare custom exception classes by extending Exception or a subclass of Exception

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Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 1 Chapter 17 Exceptions and Assertions Chapter 9 Inheritance and Polymorphism Chapter 18 Binary I/O Chapter 17 Exceptions and Assertions Chapter 6 Arrays Chapter 19 Recursion Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 2 Objectives  To know what is exception and what is exception handling (§17.2).  To distinguish exception types: Error (fatal) vs. Exception (non-fatal), and checked vs. uncheck exceptions (§17.2).  To declare exceptions in the method header (§17.3).  To throw exceptions out of a method (§17.3).  To write a try-catch block to handle exceptions (§17.3).  To explain how an exception is propagated (§17.3).  To rethrow exceptions in a try-catch block (§17.4).  To use the finally clause in a try-catch block (§17.5).  To know when to use exceptions (§17.6).  To declare custom exception classes (§17.7 Optional). Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 3 Syntax Errors, Runtime Errors, and Logic Errors You learned that there are three categories of errors: syntax errors, runtime errors, and logic errors. Syntax errors arise because the rules of the language have not been followed. They are detected by the compiler. Runtime errors occur while the program is running if the environment detects an operation that is impossible to carry out. Logic errors occur when a program doesn't perform the way it was intended to. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 4 Runtime Errors import java.util.Scanner; public class ExceptionDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter an integer: "); int number = scanner.nextInt(); // Display the result System.out.println( "The number entered is " + number); } } If an exception occurs on this line, the rest of the lines in the method are skipped and the program is terminated. Terminated. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Run Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 5 Catch Runtime Errors import java.util.*; public class HandleExceptionDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in); boolean continueInput = true; do { try { System.out.print("Enter an integer: "); int number = scanner.nextInt(); // Display the result System.out.println( "The number entered is " + number); continueInput = false; } catch (InputMismatchException ex) { System.out.println("Try again. (" + "Incorrect input: an integer is required)"); scanner.nextLine(); // discard input } } while (continueInput); } } If an exception occurs on this line, the rest of lines in the try block are skipped and the control is transferred to the catch block. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Run Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 6 Exception Classes LinkageError Error AWTError AWTException Throwable ClassNotFoundException VirtualMachineError IOException Exception RuntimeException Object ArithmeticException NullPointerException IndexOutOfBoundsException Several more classes Several more classes Several more classes IllegalArgumentException Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 7 System Errors LinkageError Error AWTError AWTException Throwable ClassNotFoundException VirtualMachineError IOException Exception RuntimeException Object ArithmeticException NullPointerException IndexOutOfBoundsException Several more classes Several more classes Several more classes IllegalArgumentException System errors are thrown by JVM and represented in the Error class. The Error class describes internal system errors. Such errors rarely occur. If one does, there is little you can do beyond notifying the user and trying to terminate the program gracefully. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 8 LinkageError Error AWTError AWTException Throwable ClassNotFoundException VirtualMachineError IOException Exception RuntimeException Object ArithmeticException NullPointerException IndexOutOfBoundsException Several more classes Several more classes Several more classes IllegalArgumentException Exceptions Exception describes errors caused by your program and external circumstances. These errors can be caught and handled by your program. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 9 Runtime Exceptions LinkageError Error AWTError AWTException Throwable ClassNotFoundException VirtualMachineError IOException Exception RuntimeException Object ArithmeticException NullPointerException IndexOutOfBoundsException Several more classes Several more classes Several more classes IllegalArgumentException RuntimeException is caused by programming errors, such as bad casting, accessing an out-of-bounds array, and numeric errors. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 10 Checked Exceptions vs. Unchecked Exceptions RuntimeException, Error and their subclasses are known as unchecked exceptions. All other exceptions are known as checked exceptions, meaning that the compiler forces the programmer to check and deal with the exceptions. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 11 Unchecked Exceptions In most cases, unchecked exceptions reflect programming logic errors that are not recoverable. For example, a NullPointerException is thrown if you access an object through a reference variable before an object is assigned to it; an IndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown if you access an element in an array outside the bounds of the array. These are the logic errors that should be corrected in the program. Unchecked exceptions can occur anywhere in the program. To avoid cumbersome overuse of try-catch blocks, Java does not mandate you to write code to catch unchecked exceptions. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 12 LinkageError Error AWTError AWTException Throwable ClassNotFoundException VirtualMachineError IOException Exception RuntimeException Object ArithmeticException NullPointerException IndexOutOfBoundsException Several more classes Several more classes Several more classes IllegalArgumentException Checked or Unchecked Exceptions Unchecked exception. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 13 Declaring, Throwing, and Catching Exceptions method1() { try { invoke method2; } catch (Exception ex) { Process exception; } } method2() throws Exception { if (an error occurs) { throw new Exception(); } } catch exception throw exception declare exception Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 14 Declaring Exceptions Every method must state the types of checked exceptions it might throw. This is known as declaring exceptions. public void myMethod() throws IOException public void myMethod() throws IOException, OtherException Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 15 Throwing Exceptions When the program detects an error, the program can create an instance of an appropriate exception type and throw it. This is known as throwing an exception. Here is an example, throw new TheException(); TheException ex = new TheException(); throw ex; Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 16 Throwing Exceptions Example /** Set a new radius */ public void setRadius(double newRadius) throws IllegalArgumentException { if (newRadius >= 0) radius = newRadius; else throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Radius cannot be negative"); } Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 17 Catching Exceptions try { statements; // Statements that may throw exceptions } catch (Exception1 exVar1) { handler for exception1; } catch (Exception2 exVar2) { handler for exception2; } ... catch (ExceptionN exVar3) { handler for exceptionN; } Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 18 Catching Exceptions main method { ... try { ... invoke method1; statement1; } catch (Exception1 ex1) { Process ex1; } statement2; } method1 { ... try { ... invoke method2; statement3; } catch (Exception2 ex2) { Process ex2; } statement4; } method2 { ... try { ... invoke method3; statement5; } catch (Exception3 ex3) { Process ex3; } statement6; } An exception is thrown in method3 Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 19 Catch or Declare Checked Exceptions Java forces you to deal with checked exceptions. If a method declares a checked exception (i.e., an exception other than Error or RuntimeException), you must invoke it in a try-catch block or declare to throw the exception in the calling method. For example, suppose that method p1 invokes method p2 and p2 may throw a checked exception (e.g., IOException), you have to write the code as shown in (a) or (b). void p1() { try { p2(); } catch (IOException ex) { ... } } (a) (b) void p1() throws IOException { p2(); } Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 20 Example: Declaring, Throwing, and Catching Exceptions Objective: This example demonstrates declaring, throwing, and catching exceptions by modifying the setRadius method in the Circle class defined in Chapter 6. The new setRadius method throws an exception if radius is negative. TestCircleWithException Run CircleWithException Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 21 Rethrowing Exceptions try { statements; } catch(TheException ex) { perform operations before exits; throw ex; } Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 22 The finally Clause try { statements; } catch(TheException ex) { handling ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 23 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statements; } catch(TheException ex) { handling ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; Suppose no exceptions in the statements Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 24 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statements; } catch(TheException ex) { handling ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; The final block is always executed Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 25 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statements; } catch(TheException ex) { handling ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; Next statement in the method is executed Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 26 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statement1; statement2; statement3; } catch(Exception1 ex) { handling ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; Suppose an exception of type Exception1 is thrown in statement2 Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 27 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statement1; statement2; statement3; } catch(Exception1 ex) { handling ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; The exception is handled. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 28 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statement1; statement2; statement3; } catch(Exception1 ex) { handling ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; The final block is always executed. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 29 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statement1; statement2; statement3; } catch(Exception1 ex) { handling ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; The next statement in the method is now executed. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 30 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statement1; statement2; statement3; } catch(Exception1 ex) { handling ex; } catch(Exception2 ex) { handling ex; throw ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; statement2 throws an exception of type Exception2. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 31 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statement1; statement2; statement3; } catch(Exception1 ex) { handling ex; } catch(Exception2 ex) { handling ex; throw ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; Handling exception Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 32 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statement1; statement2; statement3; } catch(Exception1 ex) { handling ex; } catch(Exception2 ex) { handling ex; throw ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; Execute the final block Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 33 Trace a Program Execution animation try { statement1; statement2; statement3; } catch(Exception1 ex) { handling ex; } catch(Exception2 ex) { handling ex; throw ex; } finally { finalStatements; } Next statement; Rethrow the exception and control is transferred to the caller Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 34 Cautions When Using Exceptions Exception handling separates error-handling code from normal programming tasks, thus making programs easier to read and to modify. Be aware, however, that exception handling usually requires more time and resources because it requires instantiating a new exception object, rolling back the call stack, and propagating the errors to the calling methods. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 35 When to Throw Exceptions An exception occurs in a method. If you want the exception to be processed by its caller, you should create an exception object and throw it. If you can handle the exception in the method where it occurs, there is no need to throw it. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 36 When to Use Exceptions When should you use the try-catch block in the code? You should use it to deal with unexpected error conditions. Do not use it to deal with simple, expected situations. For example, the following code try { System.out.println(refVar.toString()); } catch (NullPointerException ex) { System.out.println("refVar is null"); } Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 37 When to Use Exceptions is better to be replaced by if (refVar != null) System.out.println(refVar.toString()); else System.out.println("refVar is null"); Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 38 Creating Custom Exception Classes  Use the exception classes in the API whenever possible.  Create custom exception classes if the predefined classes are not sufficient.  Declare custom exception classes by extending Exception or a subclass of Exception. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Fifth Edition, (c) 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 0-13-148952-6 39 Custom Exception Class Example Run InvalidRadiusException In Listing 17.1, the setRadius method throws an exception if the radius is negative. Suppose you wish to pass the radius to the handler, you have to create a custom exception class. CircleWithRadiusException TestCircleWithRadiusException

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