Internationalization in higher education in Russia: Challenges, lessons and prospects of collaboration with Vietnam

It should be emphasized that RussianVietnamese collaboration in education could be more effective if managers in education would faster respond to current needs of industry and economy. A long tradition in cooperation, knowledge of national peculiarities of each other, long-term friendship and mutual sympathy of two nations can contribute to development of new links and modern strategies. Thus, collaboration in education for both sides has entered a new phase where internationalization plays a key role. The goal of Russian educational policy in this field is to provide common European standards with incorporation of national component which according to the rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University academic V.A. Sadovnichiy includes scientific character of education, its fundamentality and comprehensiveness of knowledge [15].

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VNU Journal of Science: Policy and Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017) 184-192 Internationalization in Higher Education in Russia: Challenges, Lessons and Prospects of Collaboration with Vietnam Natalia Kraevskaia1,2,* 1VNU International School, Building G7, 144 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam 2Russian State University for the Humanities (Institute for Oriental and Classical Studies), Miusskaya sq. 6, Moscow, GSP-3, 125993, Russia Received 25 April 2017 Revised 11 June 2017; Accepted 28 June 2017 Abstract: The article addresses the needs of educational system in context of rapidly developing globalization and explores internationalization of higher education as one of the main factors which contributes to integration of international dimension to professional training at universities. Different components and strategies of internationalization, such as strong collaboration in teaching, internationalization of the curriculum, cooperation in researches and knowledge production, students and professors‟ mobility, and participation in international networks are analyzed in connection to education reform in Russia. The article provides the comparison of internationalization policies in Russian and Vietnamese education systems, argues that innovations in higher education should be adjusted to the national interests, traditions and mentality and finally describes new strategies in collaboration of Russia and Vietnam in the field of education. Keywords: Higher education, internationalization, reforms, collaboration of Vietnam and Russia. Theeconomic and political forces of knowledge and skills and facilitate their ongoing globalization forge such a worldwide communication. educational platform where common knowledge and integration of scientific researches play the key role in order to create a 1. Internationalization: goals and indicators „knowledge society‟ which is capable to maintain all innovations in technique, Internationalization of higher education is technology, information and communication. usually defined as “the process of integrating an Thus globalization is in need of international, intercultural, or global dimension internationalization of education which would into the purpose, functions or delivery of provide the growing international labor market postsecondary education” [1]. Though with educated specialists with relevant according to many experts, the main factor which affects national systems of education is the economic ideology of globalization, which _______ accentuates priority of the market and the  Tel.: 84- 912333231. declining role of the government sector in Email: education, internationalization in education in 184 Natalia K. / VNU Journal of Science: Policy and Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017) 184-192 185 some of its aspects is not a new phenomenon. universities‟ cross-cultural cooperation beginning Pilgrimage of students in the medieval Europe, from the 18th century. In the Soviet period, the strategy of colonial powers to educate the especially after the World War II, the aspects of cadre elite from the vassal countries in internationalization in the university life metropolia are early examples of students‟ became more diverse and the number of foreign mobility. Meanwhile, foundation of the students enrolled to USSR universities universities by the colonial empires of the late approached 130 thousand (third place after 19th - early 20th centuries at their overseas USA and France at that time). Collapse of the territories could be compared to contemporary Soviet Union and transition of Russia to the export of education. The educational model market economy raised the question of which had been implanted from the West didn‟t commercialization in training professionals, change much after the former colonies got both national and foreign. If in the Soviet time, independence; they often used the same internationalization in education had been principles to operate the existent and to open understood mainly as the presence of foreign new universities. After the World War II during students in national universities and also as a the period of the "cold war" the confrontation propagation of ideological values of the former between the West and the socialist countries regime, after 'perestroika' the universities began spread out to the system of education and two to develop new forms of internationalization ideological camps began a strong rivalry in through reform of curriculum, international and attracting the students from the developing regional cooperation in teaching and researches, countries. „Internationalization‟ at that time was distance learning, etc. seen as students' migration to the countries Considering new economic demands at the which could provide education for rapid epoch of globalization Europe began to form developments of new liberated post-colonial the common educational space almost two industries. decades ago when in 1999 the Bologna In the turn of millennium when agreement was signed marking the start of globalization adjusted the roles of states, unification of national high education systems transnational corporations, financial systems, in Europe. Russia has joined the Bologna various national institutions and international agreement in 2003 declaring that will complete organizations to modern development process, the education reform in 2010. Though, the the goals and the policies of education were current reform had faced a lot of obstacles - also revised. In the more interconnected world mainly the resistance of universities and internationalization in higher education, once educators themselves. From one side, seen as students exchange and export of remembering the quote of Woodrow Wilson, educational models, now has got more complex the 28th president of United States, from the interpretation which also includes stronger time he had been the President of Princeton collaboration in teaching, internationalization University "It is easier to change the location of of the curriculum, participation in international a cemetery, than to change the school networks, cooperation in researches and curriculum", one can interpret such approach as knowledge production, professors mobility and a conservatism of the universities. From common tools of innovative management . another side, the borrowed innovations not always correlate with national traditions and mentality. A large number of discussions on 2. Education reform in Russia: pros and cons this topic disclosed anxiety provoked by the Western model of modernization in university In Russian higher education ideas of system and called for consideration of local „internationalization‟ had been rooted in context. 186 Natalia K. / VNU Journal of Science: Policy and Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017) 184-192 Russian high education system historically loans policy for education purpose. In this based on the German model, by the end of the situation the difference in social and financial 20th century was recognized internationally, status of those who possess bachelors and organically embedded into economic system of master degrees can increase social injustice in the country and corresponded to national Russian educational system, unfamiliar with mentality. At present, for the sake of rapid this phenomenon during Soviet period. integration into Euro-American system the 2. 2. One of the main goals of the reforms government took the course on the radical confirmed in Bologna is mobility of students changes. However, the cardinal reforms caused and teachers. Though by statistics of UNESCO such contradictions as: transition to multilevel the level in international students mobility had (bachelor – master degrees) system and non- increased for the last 25 years by 300%, in acceptance of bachelor degree by the employers general it has many obstacles , mostly but not in many spheres; students mobility and poor only linked to such issues as visas, or financial support for it; professors mobility and recognition matters and costs [3]. Thus, the “brain drain”, vassalage of the reforms from the majority of Russian students still are not able to market which led to the decline of fundamental go to study abroad. Now the number of students science in favor of profitable researches. We from Russia in foreign universities is more than shall briefly inspect the above mentioned 50 000 (by the information of UNESCO: there concerns since it can attract attention of is no precise statistics, since the records are Vietnamese educators who are involved in the provided not by all countries), however this similar process of transformation of high number is insignificant (approximately 1,2 %) education system previously based on the compare to the total quantity of students Soviet standards. enrolled in higher education program - 4, 76 2. 1. Internationalization which first of all million for the year 2015 [4]. The situation with requires unification of the curriculum has Vietnamese students studying abroad is more obligated Russian universities to switch from encouraging: the report the government the 5 years training programs with the diploma submitted to the National Assembly on October of the specialist at the end to the multilevel 18, 2016 stated that now 130,000 Vietnamese system: bachelor (4 years) - master (2 years) citizens study overseas. (around 5 % from the degrees. This system at the first stages of the total number of students – 2,2 million). reforms has created a number of problems for Academic mobility of teachers also has a students as well as for teachers and employers dual nature: there is a great geographical [2]. The bachelors often can‟t find good jobs in inequality in the streams of the qualified industry and economics; they are regarded as teachers. Some countries constantly recruit half-educated since the employers are international academic personnel for convinced that the graduates can't get any development of their national educational practical experience without two-three months system; others use only their own resources or training in the economic sector of their even lose qualified specialists. “Even within specialization as it had been stipulated during the global North, inequalities of academic the 5-years study cycle. From another side, mobility are significant. Within the well-known masters are not in demand in many professional and highly regarded ERASMUS programme in fields, such as industry or agriculture. Europe, for example, one survey showed the Moreover, the reduction of government funding extent of dominance by the major systems. and growth of students‟ self-financing in According to the survey, some 60 percent of education make 6 year education program mobile academics came from the five largest hardly affordable for many families regarding and generally wealthiest member nations:14 per the low income and the poor condition of bank cent each from Germany and United Kingdom, Natalia K. / VNU Journal of Science: Policy and Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017) 184-192 187 12 per cent from France, 11 per cent from traditional education system can easily cause Spain, and 9 per cent from Italy” [5]. In Russia various negative impacts. Probably the similar the academic mobility of universities staff is reasons provoked mass protests of school and still not widely developed because of the university students in Germany on the 10th absence of infrastructure able to provide the anniversary of Bologna agreement in 2009 effective academic exchange, insufficient when young people criticized the changes in financial base, absence of planned strategies in education and complained that many companies this sector of academic activity, and language refuse to recognize a bachelor degree as an barrier. The similar situation we find in evidence of complete university education. Vietnam where the teachers academic exchange In addition, in Russian mentality education is mostly one-directional – being a receiver of was always considered to be one of the most temporary lecturing academics from overseas, important human virtues and knowledge was Vietnam educational system is not yet able regarded as spiritual value you could get respond equally. through intellectual efforts or experience but 2.3. Theorists of internationalization in not just take or buy. It means that for some education note that within the frames of the national societies, even at the time when market economy earning money is a key motive transnational corporations dictate their rules and for all internationalization projects and the International Monetary Fund, the World programs. This statement evokes the main Trade Organization, and the World Bank define concern of the opponents of Bologna reforms in global economic policies, education is still Russia who suppose that vassalage of these seen not only as the market product and can‟t reforms from the market and reduction of be thought of in the terms of provider and financial infusions from the government can consumer. The role of the teacher in such transform universities into the business societies is not devalued to simple knowledge structures since they would be obliged to do transferring. He is a real educator capable to more profitable researches to the detriment of form personality of a student. I can‟t agree to be fundamental ones. Long-term needs in just “a provider of educational service”; I want development of science, economic, culture of to stay a Teacher. the nation, thus, would be replaced by the short- Reforms in Vietnamese higher education term demands of the market. The fear that the related to internationalization of educational labor market will transform the proportions of process encountered similar problems caused theoretical disciplines in favor of more practical by formal borrowing of foreign concepts. special disciplines is not groundless: Russian Discussing the limitations of reform outcomes education now risks losing one of its the scholars argue that “importing the prerogatives – the deep knowledge by students curriculum from a Western country without of fundamental sciences which allowed them thoughtful consideration of the local culture, later in their careers to easily switch to different history and dynamics would result in low cost fields of research or change specialization. efficiency and cost ineffectiveness, leading Moreover, in Russian education system, further to a huge waste of resources”. They also based on the ideas of Fichte and Humboldt, emphasize “the importance of an inward- narrow professional education was considered looking approach to higher education reforms less important than general one, since only the because it brings the centuries-long Vietnamese later could develop the understanding of all cultural values into play” and the role of interconnections and processes in nature and in “culturally responsive curriculum and pedagogy” human existence. So straight borrowing of the in the process of internationalization [6]. foreign ideas, just like copy and paste, without adaptation to national cultural peculiarities and 188 Natalia K. / VNU Journal of Science: Policy and Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017) 184-192 3. Internationalization in Russia: following students (11 thousand). Plekhanov Russian world tendencies University of economics for example has its branches in 6 foreign countries, and Nevertheless, despite all these contradictions, distinguished technical universities, like internationalization continues to develop and Moscow Technical University of strengthen its position in Russian high communication and informatics, collaborate education. If by quantitative parameters which with numerous foreign companies both in characterize internationalization Russia is far research and training. behind the West, it doesn't yield to other Another form of universities collaboration countries by nomenclature of educational is a dual degree. In statistics of European products and services which includes work on International commission on education Tempus new programs, universities‟ collaboration in for the year 2012, 246 dual degree programs in different spheres , exchange of students and Russia at 79 universities are mentioned. academics, distance learning, work on However, it‟s still difficult for possessors of agreements about mutual recognition of these degrees to find a job on the international diplomas, intensification of foreign-language labor market because there are many learning, increasing of foreign students competitive applicants with diplomas from presence at the universities and so on [7]. The renowned European schools. On the Russian strong stimulus for internationalization of labor market employers still show preference to educational programs is creation of global Russian diploma from the solid universities and educational alliances and the growing influence the working experience. Some dual degree of international professional associations. programs are represented by unpopular and Along with development of new educational unknown foreign universities and sometimes standards and paradigms we can see a lot of are not licensed in the country of the provider. examples of integration into the meta-programs of international cooperation. One of such An important factor in internationalization examples is that MGIMO ( Moscow State is a language of education. The most attractive Institute of International Relations), RUDN and the most popular language of instructions (Peoples' Friendship University of Russia) and for majority of international students is English. RGGU ( Russian State University for the Though Russian students join dual degree Humanities) perform a program on human programs taught in English at home campus and rights with such partners as European even go for full or part-time education Interuniversity centre on human rights and programs to English speaking countries, there is democratization (so cold Venetian consortium) still a big gap between those whose level of and with the Office of the High Commissioner English is sufficient for these forms of for human Rights in UN. education and the majority which feels disadvantages of the language barrier [9]. Some of the higher education institutions develop export of educational services An effort to attract foreign students to operating their programs abroad, as Moscow national university is one of the main International Slavonic Institute and Moscow component of internationalization along with State University of Industry - in Bulgaria [8]. export of education and appropriation of Many others open their branches with the international knowledge. At present (statistics variety of departments but mostly on the for 2015/2016 school year) nearly 240 000 territory of the former Soviet republics. Kyrgyz foreign students study at 798 state and Russian Slavic University in Bishkek can be municipal universities and institutes of Russian considered the biggest one by the number of Federation. Many of national universities have Natalia K. / VNU Journal of Science: Policy and Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017) 184-192 189 not used all the resources for attracting potential demands an infusion of sufficient number of students: they still need to modernize their high qualified professionals first of all in programs, to create better studying and living industry and in financial sector. In this context conditions and to promote their education internationalization in higher education services on international market. Contrarily, becomes the key issue of educational reforms. some of the established Moscow universities Unlike Russia, Vietnam had never exported experience an influx of those who desire to educational services. Contrarily, “the character enter their different faculties and programs. of higher learning in Vietnam has been Therefore, Lomonosov Moscow State significantly shaped by external influences” University (MGU), Sankt-Petersburg State including Chinese, French and Soviet. University, Bauman Moscow State Technical “Curriculum content, intellectual influences, University (MVTU) and some others have to foreign teachers and language of instruction all limit the number of foreign students in order to show clear influences from abroad [11]. satisfy the demands of Russian applicants. At present when Vietnam aims to develop Entering the international market for knowledge-based economy and is in need of education, Russia not only aims to get a highly skilled specialists with international material profit, but also tries to create and education and experiences such components of develop a base for long-term international internationalization as strategic partnerships and relations in culture, economy, and politics, student mobility become the priorities. The professional and personal communication. The Ministry of Education and Training of the government of Russian Federation supports country has developed a special scholarship many developing countries by providing a projects to support education of Vietnamese number of scholarships which fully cover students abroad – Project 322 for the level of tuition. In its resolution # 638 from the 25th of bachelor and master degrees and Project 911 – August 2008 the government of Russian for PhD level. Both in the frames of the projects Federation increased to 10 000 the number of and privately, there are more than 100 thousand scholarships from the federal budget for foreign Vietnamese students enrolled in the foreign citizens and compatriots from abroad. Quota universities at the 2010s (125000 in 2013/2014 for such scholarships is gradually rising for by the information of Vietnam Ministry of many African, Asian and South-American Education and Training). countries including Vietnam [10]. Though the education abroad is the most significant part of internationalization, the majority of Vietnamese students are not able to 4. Internationalization in Vietnam and its study overseas because of the lack of financial priorities support and low level of general incoming knowledge. Therefore it becomes crucial to Internationalization and reforms in the reinforce internationalization at local current higher education system of Vietnam in universities via partnerships with foreign many aspects are similar to Russian situation. institutions and upgrading of existing Vietnam that turned from the planned to the curriculum. Establishing a Wholly Foreign- free market economy only 30 years ago has Owned University – RMIT, the partnership in experienced unprecedented economic growth training with universities from different during these three decades and after the period Western countries and countries of ASEAN of political and economic isolation from the with the dual diplomas are successful examples West tries to rapidly achieve economic and of internationalization in practice [12; 13]. cultural integration with more developed countries worldwide and regionally. This target 190 Natalia K. / VNU Journal of Science: Policy and Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017) 184-192 5. Russian-Vietnamese cooperation in materials, the main textbooks of Russian education: new strategies language for schools and universities had been created in Russian-Vietnamese co-authorship. In Russian-Vietnamese cooperation in Analyzing the history of this cooperation education and science internationalization is even the Western experts conclude that “the also a long-standing phenomenon. Its complex contribution of the former socialist states, history which was based in different times in notably the USSR, should not be geo-political or ideological interests now develops in a new direction taking into account underestimated, contributing to a much swifter mutually beneficial relations. development of human and institutional resources than would ever have been possible From the late 50s of the last century, we can without this key external support” [14]. already observe the prototype of internationalization in Soviet educational In 1990s , when Russia had its own politics. Even it was typical for the Soviet economic problems caused by the radical system to provide free education at the leading political and economic changes, this system of universities of Russia and other republics of the collaboration in education stayed inactive. The Soviet Union to students from the socialist and 21st century opened new perspectives for the developing countries, Vietnam was a very development of Russian- Vietnamese relations special case. Its example demonstrates that the in education: Russia recommenced different various strategies of what we now call forms of collaboration gradually broadening its internationalization have enrooted in both range according to demands of both countries. countries education since 1960s. While Internationalization aspects at present include: thousands of Vietnamese students studied in the 1) training of Vietnamese students in Russian Soviet universities and institutes, hundreds of universities - around 5000 students now, with a teachers from the Soviet Union had been strategy of Russian Ministry of education and working in Vietnam teaching Russian language science to raise a number of scholarships for and technical sciences which had been in Vietnamese students every year demand for developing national industry. Many (895scholarships had been provided for the universities of the engineering profile used academic year 2016 - 2017); 2) students and Soviet educational programs and materials, the academics exchange; 3) joint educational libraries had been equipped by Russian books programs; 4) collaboration in researches. on different engineering subjects. Many universities from the Eastern Till the early 1990s Soviet Union supported territories of Russia have a special interest in continuous training of Vietnamese specialists establishing profound relationship with who had the opportunity to go for short-terms Vietnam . Far East Federal University for courses to Soviet universities to update their example, has built up partnership with Hanoi knowledge and improve qualification. A well- University of Science and Technology in composed system of continuous learning for language students exchange, with Da Nang Russian language teachers in Vietnam University in the sphere of machine building embraced all educational levels – from school and nanotechnologies and since December 2011 teachers to university professors. Once in five has established research program on food years they spent the whole school year in technology with Nha Trang University. Many Russia at refresher training courses. The other examples can be given in order to prove specialists of the department of Pushkin the significant role of internationalization in Institute of Russian language which had been high education of both countries. The opened in Hanoi in 1983 helped to the local developing economy of Vietnam is in need for teachers to prepare new programs and tutorial the high qualified specialists not only in the Natalia K. / VNU Journal of Science: Policy and Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017) 184-192 191 sphere of management (Western universities [4] Russia in Numbers. Short book of statistics. can probably better satisfy the requirements in Rosstat Publisher, Moscow, 2016, p.147. (In this sphere), but first of all in its main strategic Russian: Россия в цифрах. Краткий статистический сборник. М.: Росстат, 2016, sectors like energetic, shipbuilding, c.147). biochemistry, processing industry, and oil and [5] Welch, Anthony R. Myths and modes of mobility: gas production and processing, where Russian the changing face of academic mobility in the programs of training can fill the niche. global era. Students, staff, and academic mobility It should be emphasized that Russian- in higher education. / Byram. Mike & Dervin, Vietnamese collaboration in education could be Fred. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, 2008, p. 298. more effective if managers in education would [6] Nhai Nguyen & Ly Thi Tran. Looking inward or faster respond to current needs of industry and outward? Vietnam higher education at the economy. A long tradition in cooperation, superhighway of globalization: culture, values and knowledge of national peculiarities of each changes. Retrieved from: other, long-term friendship and mutual sympathy of two nations can contribute to 16234.2017.1332457 development of new links and modern Access 18.06.2017. strategies. [7] Djurinskiy, A.N. Internationalization of Higher Education in Contemporary World. Pedagogy, #3, Thus, collaboration in education for both sides 2004, pp.83-92. (In Russian: Джуринский, А.Н. has entered a new phase where Интернационализация высшего образованив в internationalization plays a key role. The goal современном мире. Педагогика. 2004, №3, c. of Russian educational policy in this field is to 83-92). provide common European standards with [8] Altbach, Philip G. and Knight, Jane. The incorporation of national component which Internationalization of Higher Education: according to the rector of Lomonosov Moscow Motivations and Realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol.11, issue 3-4, State University academic V.A. Sadovnichiy Fall/Winter 2007, pp. 290-305. includes scientific character of education, its [9] Verbitskaya, L.A. Globalization and fundamentality and comprehensiveness of Internationalization in Education, and the knowledge [15]. Importance of Learning Foreign Languages. The World of Russian Word. # 2, 2001, p.15-18. (In Russian: Вербицкая, Л.А. Глобализация и References интернационализация в образовании и важность изучения иностранных языков. Мир [1] Knight, Jane. Updating the definition of русского слова, 2001, № 2, c.15-18). internationalization. International Higher [10] Rojdestvenskiy, A.V. Internationalization of Education. Number 33, Fall 2003, pp. 2–3. Russian System of Higher Professional Education: [2] Dobrenkov, V.I. Bologna process: new wave of Problems and Perspectives. Materials of the reconstruction. Globalization and education. meeting of vise-rectors for international activities Bologna process: materials of “round table”. of Russian Federation higher educational Alfa-M, Moscow , 2014, issue 2, pp. 5-8. (In institutions. Moscow, 2009, pp. 9-12. (In Russian: Russian: Добреньков, В.И. Болонский процесс: Рождественский, А. В. Интернационализация новая волна реконструкции. Глобализация и российской системы высшего образование. Болонский процесс: Материалы профессионального образования: проблемы и «круглого стола». М.: Альфа-М, 2004. Вып. 2. перспективы. Материалы совещания-семинара С. 5-8.) проректоров по международной деятельности [3] Academic mobility. International Association of высших учебных заведений РФ. М., 2009, c. 9-12). Universities. 2016-06-05. Retrieved [11] Welch, Anthony R. Internationalization of from: Vietnamese Higher Education: Retrospect and mobility , access 20.06. 2016. Prospect. Reforming Higher Education in Vietnam: Challenges and Priorities (Higher 192 Natalia K. / VNU Journal of Science: Policy and Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 2 (2017) 184-192 Education Dynamics)/ Editors: Grant Harman, [14] Welch, Anthony R. Internationalisation of Martin Hayden, Thanh Nghi Pham. PDF E-Book, Vietnamese Higher Education. Ibid., p.201. 2009, p.197. [15] Sadovnichiy, V.A. University. Present. Future. [12] Welch, Anthony R. Internationalisation of Paper at the 1st International Conference of Vietnamese Higher Education. Ibid., pp. 205-209. Russian Commonwealth Universities [13] Krasnova, G.A., Belous, V.V. Mobility of “Universities and Society”. Moscow, 2000, p.7. Vietnamese Students. Accreditation in Education, (In Russian: Садовничий, В.А. Университет. #1 (85), 2016, pp. 56-58. (In Russian: Краснова, Настоящее. Будущее. Выступление на первой Г.А., Белоус, В.В. Мобильность вьетнамских международной конференции университетов студентов. Аккредитация в образовании, №1 стран СНГ "Университеты и общество". М., (85), 2016, c. 56-59). 2000, c.7).

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