Improvement of soil quality, prevention of plant diseases and yield increase of black pepper and coffee using POLYFA-TN3

Using the biological product POLYFA-TN3 improved soil properties at coffee and black pepper farms, especially nutrient content in coffee and black pepper soils such total N, soluble N, K, and P significantly increased. Plant disease rate of black pepper and coffee also significantly reduced after using POLYFA-TN3. With using 2.0 kg of POLYFA-TN3/tree, yellow leaf disease of coffee dropped to 0 %, and slow wilt decline and Phytophthora root rot disease of black pepper dropped to 0.5 % and 3.6% respectively. In addition, black pepper and coffee yields significantly increased by 35 % and 31 % respectively with 2.0 kg of POLYFATN3/tree. Our study indicated that POLYFA-TN3 bio-organic fertilizer as a potential product for improvement of soil quality, crop yield, and prevention of plant diseases.

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Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology 55 (4C) (2017) 44-50 IMPROVEMENT OF SOIL QUALITY, PREVENTION OF PLANT DISEASES AND YIELD INCREASE OF BLACK PEPPER AND COFFEE USING POLYFA-TN3 Pham Thi Thuy Hoai 1, *, Ton That Huu Đat1, Nguyen Thi Kim Cuc2, Pham Viet Cuong 1 , Tran Dinh Man 3 , Phan Van Tan 4 1 Mien Trung Institute for Scientific Research, VAST, 321 Huynh Thuc Khang, Thua-Thien Hue City, Viet Nam 2 Institute of Marine Biochemistry, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet street, Ha Noi City, Viet Nam 3 Institute of Biotechnology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet street, Ha Noi City, Viet Nam 4 Tay Nguyen University, 567 Le Duan street, Ban Me Thuot City, DakLak , Viet Nam * Email: phamtthoai@gmail.com Received: 1 August; Accepted for publication: 8 October 2017 ABSTRACT In the current study, we used bio-organic product POLYFA-TN3 including beneficial indigenous microorganisms isolated in Tay Nguyen to improve soil quality, prevent plant diseases, and increase the yield of black pepper and coffee in Dak Lak province. Experimental results showed the efficiency of using POLYFA-TN3 on improvement of soil quality. Almost parameters of soil were increased after using POLYFA-TN3, of which soluble N, K, and P were significantly increased. Using POLYFA-TN3 also reduced plant diseases of black pepper and coffee such as yellow leaf, slow wilt decline, anthracnose, Phytophthora root rot, coffee rust. Using 2.0 kg POLYFA-TN3/tree post showed that plant diseases dropped to 0.5 - 7.53 % for black pepper, and 0 % for coffee. In addition, the yield of black pepper and coffee was significantly increased, with 35.2 % and 31.1 %, respectively. Our study indicated that the bio- organic product POLYFA-TN3 as a potential product for improvement of soil quality, crop yield, and prevention of plant diseases. Keywords: coffee, crop yield, black pepper, plant disease, POLYFA-TN3. 1. INTRODUCTION Coffee and black pepper are two major industrial trees and have a high export value of many provinces in Tay Nguyen. Area and yield of coffee in Tay Nguyen accounts for 89.3 % and 93 % country’s area and yield, respectively; whereas area and yield of black pepper in Tay Nguyen account for 43.3 % and 47.4 % country’s area and yield, respectively [1]. However, the production of coffee and black pepper is facing many challenges due to area of perennial coffee Improvement of soil quality, prevention of plant diseases and yield increase of black pepper 45 and black pepper trees are growing rapidly and plant diseases are causing negative impacts on these industrial trees. Furthermore, 2-4 year-age coffee and black pepper often suffer from plant diseases such as yellow leaf, slow wilt decline, Phytophthora root rot, and anthracnose, leading to the massive death of plants and economic damage of farmer. In addition, long time farming and overuse of inorganic fertilizers, pesticides and other plant protection chemicals have increased the soil degradation and changed soil properties. Therefore, soil becomes poor of nutrient and microorganisms, which makes the plant grow weakly and facilitates for pests and plant diseases develop [2]. Therefore, studying and using biological products and fertilizers are necessary and contribute to reducing the negative impact on soil quality and increasing crop yield. In this study, we used a biological organic product POLYFA-TN3 to improve soil quality, prevent from plant diseases and increase yield of coffee and black pepper in Ea HDing commune, Cu M’gar district, Dak Lak province. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1. Experimental area 12-year age coffee with density 1,100 trees/ha and 14-year age black pepper with density 1,600 trees/ha in Ea HDing commune, Cu M’gar district, Dak Lak province. 2.2. POLYFA-TN3 product The POLYFA-TN3 product was produced by production process of Mientrung Institute for Scientific Research, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. Composition of the POLYFA-TN3 included: pesticides degrading bacteria, antifungal bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, IAA-producing bacteria, bioflocculant producing bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, iron and aluminium tolerant bacteria, and other nutrients: α-NAA (100 ppm/g), nitrogen (2.5 %), P2O5 (3.0 %), K2O (1.0 %), humate (2.5 %); organic substances (20 %), humidity (20 %) [3]. 2.3. Experimental design Experiments were designed based on the randomized complete block design (RCBD) in triplicates, each block included 30 trees (coffee or pepper). We selected randomly 10 trees/blocks to monitor and assess results. All coffee/ black pepper trees were applied the same amount of inorganic fertilizer (1.5 tons/ha and 1.0 tons/ha of NPK 16:8:16 for coffee and black pepper, respectively; and 800 kg of lime powder/ha). Experiments of POLYFA-TN3 were conducted in triplicate with 4 formulas: CT1 (control): 2.0 kg of animal manure/tree; CT2: 1.0 kg of POLYFA-TN3/tree; CT3: 1.5 kg of POLYFA-TN3/tree; CT4: 2.0 kg of POLYFA- TN3/tree. The animal manure was applied one time per crop in early rainy season (April - May), whereas the POLYFA-TN3 was used two times per crop with 50% in the early rainy season (April - May) and 50 % in the rainy season (July). 2.4. Collection and analysis of soil samples Soil samples were collected from 4 sides of tree at depth 15-20 cm. For each experimental formula, 10 soil samples were collected before and after one year using the POLYFA-TN3. The soil quality before and after one year using the POLYFA-TN3 product was analyzed and Pham Thi Thuy Hoai, Ton That Huu Đat, Nguyen Thi Kim Cuc, Pham Viet Cuong, 46 assessed at Institute of Biotechnology and Environment, Tay Nguyen University. The representative value of soil quality for each formula was average value of 10 soil samples taken before and after one year using the POLYFA-TN3. 2.5. Effective assessment of the POLYFA-TN3 on plant diseases and yield of coffee and pepper - Plant disease rate was determined by formula: . With A was total diseased trees and B was total investigated trees - The fresh yield and dry yield of coffee and black pepper were assessed after one year using the POLYFA-TN3 2.6. Data processing and statistical analysis Data were collected and processed by Excel software. Statistical analyses were calculated using IRRISTAT software. Values in tables were average values. 3. RESULTS 3.1. Influence of using the POLYFA-TN3 on soil quality Table 1. Soil properties before and after one year using the POLYFA-TN3. Parameters Coffee Black pepper CT0 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT0 CT1 CT2 CT3 CT4 pHKCl 4.90 4.90 4.92 4.95 5.0 4.80 4.80 4.85 4.90 5.0 Humus (%) 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 Total N (%) 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.22 Total P (%) 0.24 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.31 Total K (%) 0.05 0.05 0.055 0.057 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.063 0.07 0.08 P2O5 (mg / 100 g đất) 10.2 12.7 13.1 13.7 14.4 12.7 12.9 13.4 13.9 15.3 K2O (mg / 100 g đất) 10.0 11.0 11.9 12.5 13.2 12.0 12.4 12.9 13.3 14.0 Ca++ ldl / 100 g 1.80 1.80 2.00 2.04 2.20 2.00 2.00 2.06 2.09 2.15 Mg++ ldl / 100 g 1.20 1.20 1.30 1.34 1.45 1.45 1.45 1.48 1.50 1.55 Clay (%) 65 63 62 61 59 59 59 59 58 57 Sandy (%) 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 18 18 Limon (%) 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 Soil density (g/cm 3 ) 1.35 1.35 1.32 1.30 1.28 1.30 1.30 1.29 1.27 1.25 Porosity of soil (%) 60 60 62 62 63 62 62 63 63 64 Improvement of soil quality, prevention of plant diseases and yield increase of black pepper 47 Analysis results of soil quality before (CT0) and after one year using the POLYFA-TN3 (Table 1) showed the changes of soil properties. The pH value of black pepper and coffee soils increased slightly. The clay and sand content, and density of coffee and black pepper soils tended to reduce, whereas humus and limon content, porosity of coffee and black pepper soil were significant improved. Total N, P, K of coffee and black pepper soils increased slightly, while soluble phosphorus and potassium content of both soils rapidly increased. In addition, cation exchange content in the soils significantly improved, which could enhance the plant's ability to absorb and exchange nutrients. Among experimental formulas, soil properties were improved more using POLYFA-TN3 than using manure, of which formula 4 gave the highest efficiency. With using 1.5 - 2.0 kgOLYFA-TN3/tree, total N of coffee soil increased by 20 – 30 %, P2O5 increased by 34 - 42 % and K2O increased by 25 – 32 %, while total nitrogen and soluble phosphorus of black pepper soil increased by 10 – 20 %, and soluble potassium also increased 10-17 %. 3.2. Influence of the POLYFA-TN3 on diseases of coffee and black pepper The experimental results showed that rate of coffee diseases such as yellow leaf, coffee rust, and anthracnose on CT1 (control formula) was 8.45 %, 7.7 %, and 6.5 %, respectively (Table 2). However, using the POLYFA-TN3 contributed to reducing disease rate on coffee. Among used four formulas, CT3 and CT4 (1.5 kg to 2.0 kg POLYFA-TN3) had significantly reduced diseases rate of coffee and the difference between CT3, CT4 and CT1, CT2 was statistically significant. With using 1.5 - 2.0 kg of POLYFA-TN3/tree, the yellow leaf, disease of coffee reduced lower than 2.1 %, and coffee rust disease rate was lower than 1.2 % whereas anthracnose was almost disappeared. In case of black pepper, Phytophthora root rot disease of black pepper caused by Phytophthora spp. in control formula was low (1.86 %), whereas slow wilt decline disease caused by Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, and anthracnose disease caused by Collectotrichum gloeosporioides were higher, with 9.5 % and 17.13 %, respectively. Experimental results showed that using POLYFA-TN3 reduced disease rate of black pepper. With using 2.0 kg of POLYFA-TN3/tree, rate of Phytophthora root rot, slow wilt decline and anthracnose diseases reached lowest values with 0.5 %, 3.6 % and 7.53 %, respectively. The difference of disease rate between CT3 - CT4 and CT1 and CT2 was statistically significant. Table 2. Disease rate on coffee and black pepper during experimental period (%). Formula Coffee Black pepper Yelow leaf Coffee rust Anthracnose Phytophthora root rot Slow wilt decline Anthracnose CT 1 8.45 a 7.7 a 6.50 a 1.86 a 9.50 a 17.13 a CT2 7.25 a 4.2 a 1.20 b 1.78 a 8.20 a 14.67 a CT3 2.10 b 1.2 b 0.0 c 1.02 ab 6.58 ab 10.20 ab CT4 00 c 0.0 c 0.0 c 0.50 b 3.60 b 7.53 b CV% 10.5 8.2 2.9 7.4 8.2 9.1 LSD0.05 1.86 2.46 2.0 0.86 3.02 8.54 Note: values with the same letter were not statistically significant at α <= 0.05. Pham Thi Thuy Hoai, Ton That Huu Đat, Nguyen Thi Kim Cuc, Pham Viet Cuong, 48 Figure 1. Diseases of coffee and black pepper. 3.3. Influence of the POLYFA-TN3 on yield of coffee and black pepper The obtained results showed that the coffee bean yield in all four formulas was over 4.0 kg/tree (over 4.2 tons/ha). Among used formulas, fresh fruit yield and coffee bean yield were higher in CT3 and CT4 than in CT1 and CT2. The coffee bean yield in CT3 and CT4 increased from 25.0 to 31.1 % compared to CT1 (control). In addition, rate of bean and fruit coffee in CT3 and CT4 was higher than those in the control formula. Values between CT3-CT4 and CT1-CT2 were statistically significant difference. Table 3. Influence of POLYFA-TN3 on yield of coffee and black pepper. Formula Coffee Black pepper Fruit yield (kg/tree) Rate of bean/fruit (%) Bean yield (kg/tree) Increase percentage (%) Bean yield (kg/tree) Dry bean yield (kg/tree) Increase percentage (%) CT1 18.0 b 23.1 b 4.25 b 0 10.5 d 3.33 d 0 CT2 19.1 b 23.2 b 4.37 ab 6.1 11.4 c 3.69 cd 10.9 CT3 22.5 a 23.8 a 5.35 a 25.0 12.1 b 3.86 bc 15.2 CT4 23.6 a 24.0 a 5.54 a 31.1 14.2 a 4.48 a 35.2 CV% 8.5 1.7 2.8 - 0.95 0.99 - LSD0.05 1.86 0.80 1.25 - 0.15 0.074 - Note: values with the same letter were not statistically significant at α <= 0.05. In case of black pepper, the fresh black pepper yield in CT1 was 10.5 kg/tree and dry yield was 3.33 kg/tree. Using POLYFA-TN3 in formulas CT2, CT3, CT4 showed that fresh and dry black pepper yield were increased. Among the experimental formulas, dry black pepper yield reached the highest value in CT4 with 4.48 kg/tree and increased 35.2 % compared to that in CT1. The values in CT4 and other formulas were statistically significant difference. Figure 2. Black pepper and coffee bean with using POLYFA-TN3. Root rot Slow wilt decline Anthracnose Coffee rust Anthracnose Improvement of soil quality, prevention of plant diseases and yield increase of black pepper 49 4. DISCUSSIONS During growth and development, coffee and black pepper trees often suffer from plant diseases such yellow leaf, slow wilt decline, coffee rust, and anthracnose, Phytophthora foot rot. Plant diseases have reduced the vitality of coffee and black pepper as well as reduced yield and quality of coffee, black pepper. Plant disease can reduce yield of black pepper 30 – 70 %, even reach up 80 – 90 % [4]. In Dak Lak and Gia Lai, the percentage of slow wilt decline infected trees is from 15.9 to 28.7 % [2]. Therefore, studying and using biological products to prevent and control plant diseases are considering a sustainable strategy in plant disease control. After one year using POLYFA-TN3, soil properties in coffee and black pepper farm were improved, especially nutrient content such as N, P, K and cation exchange content in black pepper and coffee soil significantly increased. The beneficial microorganisms in POLYFA-TN3 such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, IAA-producing bacteria contributed in increase of nutrients of soil. The results also showed that soil properties such as clay, sand and limon content in soil as well as soil density changed under impacts of beneficial microorganisms in POLYFA-TN3 and cultivation. In addition, pathogenic antifungal microorganisms in the POLYFA-TN3 also resulted in reducing plant diseases by pathogenic fungi of black pepper and coffee (Phytophthora sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani) and increasing yield of coffee and black pepper. Yield of coffee and black pepper increased 31.1 % and 35.2 % using 2.0 kg of POLYFA-TN3/tree. Several previous studies have used different biological products and organic fertilizers to improve yield of coffee and black pepper. Quynh et al (2012) studied and used biological product SH-BV1 including six beneficial microorganisms to prevent coffee and black pepper from nematode and root pathogenic fungi. The SH-BV1 product reduced plant diseases caused by root nematodes, Phytophthora spp., and Fusarium spp. with 59.6 - 82.98 %, 53.88 - 68.27 %, and 70.55-78.15 %, respectively. Using SH-BV1 also increased yield of black pepper and coffee by 22.9 - 38.5 % and 18.84 - 26.06 %, respectively [5]. Similarly, Dung et al. (2011) reported that biological product (Trichoderma and SH1) reduced pathogenic fungus Phytophthora sp by 50.1 – 66.8 % [6]. In addition, Ha et al (2017) used Pseudomonas putida for black pepper in Gia Lai, which makes yield of black pepper increase by 4.04 - 5.77 % [7]. These studies have indicated that biological products play an important role in improving soil properties, reducing plant disease and enhancing yield of plant. 5. CONCLUSION Using the biological product POLYFA-TN3 improved soil properties at coffee and black pepper farms, especially nutrient content in coffee and black pepper soils such total N, soluble N, K, and P significantly increased. Plant disease rate of black pepper and coffee also significantly reduced after using POLYFA-TN3. With using 2.0 kg of POLYFA-TN3/tree, yellow leaf disease of coffee dropped to 0 %, and slow wilt decline and Phytophthora root rot disease of black pepper dropped to 0.5 % and 3.6% respectively. In addition, black pepper and coffee yields significantly increased by 35 % and 31 % respectively with 2.0 kg of POLYFA- TN3/tree. Our study indicated that POLYFA-TN3 bio-organic fertilizer as a potential product for improvement of soil quality, crop yield, and prevention of plant diseases. Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the project: “Study for completing and transferring production technology of the POLYFA-TN3 biological product to improve the soil in Tay Nguyen” under code TN3/C10. Pham Thi Thuy Hoai, Ton That Huu Đat, Nguyen Thi Kim Cuc, Pham Viet Cuong, 50 REFERENCES 1. Vu Nang Dung - Project’s report: Study and comprehensively evaluate the current situation and propose solutions for sustainable development of industrial crops and food crops in Tay Nguyen, Project’s code: TN3/T28, 2015 (in Vietnamese). 2. Dao Thi Lan Hoa, Phan Quoc Sung, Tran Thi Kim Loang, Ton Nu Tuan Nam, Nguyen Xuan Hoa, Ta Thanh Nam - Study on slow wilt disease of black pepper in Tay Nguyen and control measures, Workshop proceedings of plant protection for the policy of restructuring plants in the southern provinces and Tay Nguyen (2003) 128-131 (in Vietnamese). 3. Pham Viet Cuong - Final report: study for completing and transferring production technology of the POLYFA-TN3 biological product to improve the soil in Tay Nguyen. 3rd Tay Nguyen Program, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 2015 (in Vietnamese). 4. Ngo Vinh Vien - Report of black pepper’s pest and preventive measures. Workshop on pest and disease of black pepper and control measures, Dak Nong (2007) 1-8 (in Vietnamese). 5. Nguyen Thi Chuc Quynh, Tran Van Huy, Nguyen Thu Ha, Le Van Trinh, Vu Thi Hien, Pham Thi Minh Thang, Phung Quang Hung - SH-BV1 – A bio-product controlling nematodes and root fungal disease of black pepper and coffee in Dak Nong, Gia Lai. 2 nd National Workshop on Plant Science, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Science (2012) 961-965 (in Vietnamese). 6. Pham Ngoc Dung - Final report “Study and application of scientific and technological solutions for integrated management of black pepper diseases and improvement of production efficiency and income for the poor people in Quang Tri province, Institute of Plant Protection. 2011 (in Vietnamese). 7. Tran Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Thi Hue, Nguyen Quang Co, Le Van Chanh, Hoang Thi Hong Que - Application model of Pseudomonas putida product on business pepper in Gia Lai, Journal of Plant Protection 1 (2017) 51-57 (in Vietnamese).

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