Giáo trình đào tạo máy trưởng hạng ba môn tiếng anh cơ bản

In 1893, in St. Louis, Missouri, Nikola Tesla made devices for his experiments with electricity. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Electric Light Association, he described and demonstrated the principles of his wireless work. The descriptions contained all the elements that were later incorporated into radio systems before the development of the vacuum tube. He initially experimented with magnetic receivers, unlike the coherers (detecting devices consisting of tubes filled with iron filings which had been invented by Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti at Fermo in Italy in 1884) used by Guglielmo Marconi and other early experimenters. A demonstration of wireless telegraphy took place in the lecture theater of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History on August 14, 1894, carried out by Professor Oliver Lodge and Alexander Muirhead. During the demonstration a radio signal was sent from the neighboring Clarendon laboratory building, and received by apparatus in the lecture theater.

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round the table. That table was used for learning only, because we had meals at the canteen of school. In the morning, we got up at 6:30, had a small breakfast and went to class. Our learning time started at 7:00 and finished at 11:30. In the afternoon, we could stay home if there were no practice lesson in workshop. Evenings were the time for us to do homework or enjoy some entertainments such as: playing chess, going to English club, seeing movies, etc. Now, we are Vietnamese sailors. We sail on the same cargo vessel. She carries cargoes from Sài Gòn port to other ports in Vietnam. Our time depends on our ship is underway or not and the watches that we have to keep. The sailors’ life is not as wonderful as the school life, but we can earn living ourselves. Life’s great! 4.5.2 Answer questions: 1. Was the writer a student? __________________________________________________________________ 2. Where was their building? __________________________________________________________________ 3. How was their room in boarding school? __________________________________________________________________ 4. What was their timetable? __________________________________________________________________ 5. Do students have any time to relax? When? __________________________________________________________________ 4.5.3 Writing about your daily activities at school __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Unit 5 THE MOTOR CARS 5.1 Conversation A: Do you have a car? B: Yes, I do. A: What kind and what color is it? B: It is a green Ford. A: How long did you buy it? B: I bought it 2 years ago. A: Was it still new at that time? B: No, it was repaired after a minor accident. A: What happened? B: Its old owner rushed into a truck when he was driving to work. A: What a pity! But it looks like a brand new one. B: Did you see it? A: Oh yes, yesterday afternoon. I saw you on Tôn Đức Thắng avenue. B: Was I on the way home? A: I think so. I hope I had enough money to buy one. B: Good luck! You have many chances left! 5.2 Grammar: 5.2.1 Past simple tense: We use past simple tense to describe - a completed action in the past (We played tennis yesterday). - a completed situation in the past (I lived in Đà Nẵng from 1998 to 2005). - a repeated action in the past (She carried cargoes to Đồng Tháp every week until last month). Regular Verbs - Positives: S V2/-ed O Time in the past I / you visited Holland two years ago. He / she / it stayed on board last Sunday. We / you / they watched TV last night. - Negatives: S DID NOT + V O Time in the past I / you didn’t visit Holland two years ago. He / she / it didn’t stay on board last Sunday. We /you / they didn’t watch TV last night. - Questions: + Y / N: DID (NOT) S V O Time in the past Did (didn’t) I, you visit Holland two years ago? he, she, it stay on board last Sunday? we, you, they watch TV last night? Short answers: Yes, S + did / No, S + didn’t. -> Students give answers to all questions above. + WH: WH DID (NOT) S V1 O Time in the past When did / didn’t I / you visit Holland? Where he / she / it stay last Sunday? What we / you / they watch last night? -> Students give answers. * Notes: - Spelling: + When the verb ends in -e, we add -d: live – lived; practise – practised. + When the verb ends in a short vowel and a single consonant, we double the consonant and add -ed: stop – stopped; grab – grabbed. + When the verb ends in a consonant + y, we change -y to -ied: carry – carried; try – tried. - Pronunciation: + After a vowel sound or a voiced consonant we pronounce the final -d [d]: pulled [puld]; lived [livd]. + After a voiceless consonant (p, k, tʃ, ʃ, s) we pronounce the final -d [t]: stopped [stɔpt]; looked [lukt]; watched [wɔtʃt]; missed [mist]. + After -t or -d we pronounce the final syllable [id]: started [sta:tid]; needed [ni:did]. Irregular verbs: - Positives: Many common verbs have an irregular past form, for examples: Do did Go went Write wrote The irregular form is the same for all persons. - Negatives, questions, short answers: the same as for regular verbs, for examples: He didn’t go on board. We didn’t buy any new equipment for our last voyage. Did you have a good holiday? – Yes, we did. Did you go ashore yesterday? – No, I didn’t. Where did he go yesterday? – He went shopping. Why didn’t she come alongside at good landfall? – Because she didn’t answer the helm. To Be - Positives: S BE Others Times in the past I / he / she / it was at home last week. We / you / they were on holiday yesterday. - Negatives: S BE NOT Others Times in the past I / he / she / it wasn’t (was not) at home last week. We / you / they weren’t (were not) on holiday yesterday. - Questions: + Y / N: BE (NOT) S Others Times in the past Was / wasn’t I / he / she / it at home last week? (1) Were / weren’t we / you / they on holiday yesterday? (2) Short answers: Yes, S + was (were) / No, S + was (were) not. Yes, I (he, she, it) was / No, I (he, she, it) wasn’t. Yes, we (you, they) were / No, we (you, they) weren’t. + Wh: WH BE (NOT) S Others Times in the past Where was / wasn’t I / he / she / it last week? When were / weren’t we / you / they on holiday? Answers: give information (students’ duty) To have - Positives: S HAD Others I / he / she / it had an interesting job. we / you / they good marks at high school. - Negatives, questions, short answers: the same as for regular verbs, for examples: I / he / she / it / we / you / they didn’t have any bicycles. Did /didn’t I / he / she / it / we / you / they have good marks at high school? What did / didn’t I / he / she / it / we / you / they have on the ship? 5.2.2 Past continuous tense Positives: S BE Ving Noun (s) Others I / he / she / it was maneuvering the ship this time last month. We / you / they were handling the lifeboats on the sea at 10 last night. Negatives: S BE NOT Ving Noun (s) Others I / he / she / it wasn’t maneuvering the ship this time last month. We / you / they weren’t handling the lifeboats on the sea at 10 last night. Questions: - Y / N: BE (NOT) S Ving Noun (s) Others Was / wasn’t I / he / she / it maneuvering the ship this time last month? Were / weren’t we / you / they handling the lifeboats on the sea at 10 last night? Short answers: Yes, S + be / No, S + be not. (Students give answers). - Wh: WH BE (NOT) S Ving Noun (s) Others What was / wasn’t I / he / she / it doing this time last month? Where were / weren’t we / you / they handling the lifeboats at 10 last night? (Students give information to answer the questions above). * Use: We use the past continuous to say that somebody was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but not finished: This time last week Jim and his wife were staying at a motel in Beijing. We weren’t keeping watch on bridge (in engine room) at 7 o’clock yesterday evening. I waved her but she wasn’t looking. - We often use past continuous and past simple together to say that something happened in the middle of something else: The Captain stood in the bridge when I was keeping the morning watch. While they were loading cargoes, the saw a man overboard. 5.3 Vocabulary 5.3.1 The text THE PARADOX OF CAR This means of transportation at first seemed unattainable to the masses - it was so different from ordinary means. There was no comparison between the motorcar and the others: the cart, the train, the bicycle, or the horse-car. Exceptional beings went out in self-propelled vehicles that weighed at least a ton and whose extremely complicated mechanical organs were as mysterious as they were hidden from view. For one important aspect of the automobile myth is that for the first time people were riding in private vehicles whose operating mechanisms were completely unknown to them and whose maintenance and feeding they had to entrust to specialists. Here is the paradox of the automobile: it appears to confer on its owners limitless freedom, allowing them to travel when and where they choose at a speed equal to or greater than that of the train. But actually, this seeming independence has for its underside a radical dependency. Unlike the horse rider, the wagon driver, or the cyclist, the motorist was going to depend for the fuel supply, as well as for the smallest kind of repair, on dealers and specialists in engines, lubrication, and ignition, and on the interchangeability of parts. Unlike all previous owners of a means of locomotion, the motorist's relationship to his or her vehicle was to be that of user and consumer-and not owner and master. This vehicle, in other words, would oblige the owner to consume and use a host of commercial services and industrial products that could only be provided by some third party. The apparent independence of the automobile owner was only concealing the actual radical dependency. 5.3.2 Pronunciation Nouns Aspect [ˈæspekt] khía cạnh, mặt Automobile [ˈɔːtəməbiːl] xe ô tô Bicycle [ˈbaɪsɪkl] xe đạp Cart [kɑːt] xe ngựa Commercial service [kəˈmɜːʃl ˈsɜːvɪs] dịch vụ thương mại Comparison [kəmˈpærɪsn] so sánh Consumer [kənˈsjuːmə(r)] khách hàng Cyclist [ˈsaɪklɪst] người đi xe đạp Dealer [ˈdiːlə(r)] đại lý Dependency [dɪˈpendənsi] phụ thuộc Driver [ˈdraɪvə(r)] tài xế Engine [ˈendʒɪn] động cơ, máy, cơ giới Freedom [ˈfriːdəm] tự do Fuel [ˈfjuːəl] nhiên liệu Horse [hɔːs] ngựa Horse-car [hɔːs kɑː(r)] xe ngựa Ignition [ɪɡˈnɪʃn] bộ phận đánh lửa Independence [ˌɪndɪˈpendəns] độc lập Industrial product [ɪnˈdʌstriəl ˈprɒdʌkt] sản phẩm công nghiệp Interchangeability [ˌɪntəˈtʃeɪndʒəbl] có thể thay cho nhau Kind [kaɪnd] loại Locomotion [ˌləʊkəˈməʊʃn] sự vận động Lubrication [ˈluːbrɪkeɪt] sự bôi trơn Maintenance [ˈmeɪntənəns] bảo trì Mass [mæs] khối, đống Master [ˈmɑːstə(r)] thạc sĩ; công nhân giỏi, thợ cả Means [miːn] phương tiện Mechanisms [ˈmekənɪzəm] máy móc, cơ chế Motorist [ˈməʊtərɪst] người lái xe ô tô Myth [mɪθ] chuyện hoang đường Organ [ˈɔːɡən] cơ quan, bộ phận Owner [ˈəʊnə(r)] người chủ Paradox [ˈpærədɒks] nghịch lí Part [pɑːt] phần Party [pɑːti] bên, phía Relationship [rɪˈleɪʃnʃɪp] mối quan hệ Repair [rɪˈpeə(r)] sửa chữa Rider [ˈraɪdə(r)] người đi xe đạp/ nẹp tàu Specialist [ˈspeʃəlɪst] chuyên gia Speed [spiːd] tốc độ Ton [tʌn] tấn Train [treɪn] xe lửa Transportation [ˌtrænspɔːˈteɪʃn] sự vận chuyển Underside [ˈʌndəsaɪd] mặt bên dưới User [ˈjuːzə(r)] người dùng Vehicle [ˈviːəkl] xe cộ View [vjuː] tầm nhìn, quang cảnh Wagon [ˈwæɡən] xe goòng, toa trần chở hàng hoá Verbs Allow [əˈlaʊ] cho phép Appear [əˈpɪə(r)] xuất hiện Choose [tʃuːz] chọn Confer [kənˈfɜː(r)] đem đến, mang lại Consume [kənˈsjuːm] tiêu dùng, mua Entrust [ɪnˈtrʌst] giao phó Feed [fiːd] nuôi, cung cấp vật liệu Limit [ˈlɪmɪt] giới hạn, hạn chế Oblige [əˈblaɪdʒ] bắt buộc Provide [prəˈvaɪd] chu cấp, qui định Adjectives Actual [ˈæktʃuəl] sự thực, trên thực tế Apparent (adj.) [əˈpærnt] rõ ràng, hiển nhiên At least [ət liːst] ít ra, ít nhất Commercial [kəˈmɜːʃl] thương mại Complete [kəmˈpliːt] hoàn toàn Complicated [ˈkɒmplɪkeɪtɪd] phức tạp, rắc rối Equal [ˈiːkwəl] đồng đều, ngang bằng Extreme [ɪkˈstriːm] vô cùng, tột độ, cực kì Important [ɪmˈpɔːtnt] quan trọng Industrial [ɪnˈdʌstriəl] công nghiệp/ kỹ nghệ Limitless [ˈlɪmɪtləs] vô hạn, rất lớn Mysterious [mɪˈstɪəriəs] huyền bí Ordinary [ˈɔːdnri] thông thường Previous [ˈpriːviəs] trước Radical [ˈrædɪkl] cơ bản/ quyết liệt Self-propelled [self prəˈpeld] tự động, tự hành Unattainable [ˌʌnəˈteɪnəbl] không thể đạt được Unknown [‏۸n’nəun] không biết, xa lạ Adverbs Actually [ˈæktʃuəli] trên thực tế, thậm chí Completely [kəmˈpliːtli] hoàn toàn, đầy đủ Extremely [ɪkˈstriːmli] vô cùng, tột độ, cực kì Only [ˈəʊnli] chỉ, chỉ có 5.4 Exercises 5.4.1 Answer questions: 1. Was the first car similar to the ordinary means of transport? ________________________________________________________________ 2. Did people know well about the car mechanism at the first time using it? _________________________________________________________________ 3. Who could help drivers to maintain the car? _________________________________________________________________ 4. Could the car drivers drive at any speed if they want? _________________________________________________________________ 5. What was the motorist going to depend for? _________________________________________________________________ 6. What was the motorist's relationship to his or her vehicle? _________________________________________________________________ 7. Do you think the models of the car are the same as before? _________________________________________________________________ 8. How many points can you compare the current cars and the car at the beginning? _________________________________________________________________ 9. What is the most uncomfortable thing of the car as your opinion? _________________________________________________________________ 10. Draw a table with two columns and write down the paradox of car in it (advantages and disadvantages). ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 5.4.2 Put the verbs into the correct form, past continuous or past simple 1. Jane __________ (wait) for me when I __________ (arrive). 2. ‘What __________ (you/do) this time yesterday?’ ‘I __________ asleep’ (be). 3. ‘__________ (you/go) ashore last night?’ ‘No, I __________ tired.’ 4. ‘Was the Bosun at the bridge yesterday morning?’ ‘Yes, he __________ (keep) the morning watch. 5. ‘How fast __________ (you/drive) when the accident __________ (happen)?’ 6. John __________ (take) a photograph of me while I __________ (not/look). 7. We were in a very difficult position. We __________ (not/know) what to do. 8. When we last __________ (meet) Alan, he __________ (try) to find a job in London. 9. Somebody __________ (follow) them when they __________ (walk) along the street. 10. When he __________ (be) young, he __________ (want) to be a bus driver. 5.4.3 Put the words in the right order: 1. 8 o’clock / some friends / having dinner / was / with / I / yesterday evening / at. _______________________________________________________________________ 2. last Saturday / on the way / were / to Hongkong / they / at 5 o’clock. _______________________________________________________________________ 3. a storm / we / on / Atlantic Ocean / met / our ship / while / was / the. _______________________________________________________________________ 4. keeping / fell asleep / the evening watch / while / Tom / he / was. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. our flights / we / while / a chat / were / waiting for / had / we. _______________________________________________________________________ 6. I / but / saw / they / see / in town / yesterday / didn’t / me / them. _______________________________________________________________________ 7. the storm / come fast / to avoid / in time / luckily / but / managed / our ship / we. _______________________________________________________________________ 8. was / last month / his ship / underway / to Singapore. _______________________________________________________________________ 9. Forenoon / ago / started / an / watch / half / the / hour _______________________________________________________________________ 10. I / but / enjoying / Christ / wanted / to go home / the party / was. _______________________________________________________________________ 5.4.4 Write a letter to your friend, tell him / her about your last term at school. Here are some suggestions : - How many subjects did you learn? - How were the results (marks, teachers’ comments)? - What difficulties did you meet? - Did you study hard or not? - Was your schedule suitable for your learning? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 5.5 Consolidation 5.5.1 Extra reading WHAT ARE YOUR OPINIONS ABOUT THE CAR? There are many different means of transport. Some people prefer travelling by car, others think that it's dangerous and pollutes the environment. Whatever your views, there's no doubt that travelling by car has both many advantages, and a lot of disadvantages. To begin with the speed, we can move quickly from one place to another. We don't have to waste our time and wait for any public vehicles. Secondly, cars are always available and we can go by car everywhere. Moreover, we can also have touring holiday when and where we want. If we want to go for a trip, we don't have to book bus tickets- it's too complicated. On the other hand, travelling by car is not very comfortable for a driver. He cannot relax, he has to be careful all the time. Vehicles are forced to stay in traffic jams, it is also very uncomfortable. Passengers can sleep or do what they want, but the driver cannot. Travelling by car is dangerous, too. There are many crashes on the roads and we should be very careful and sensible. There are many people, who want to drive after alcohol, they cause a lot of accidents. Using a car is also very expensive, because you have to pay much money for petrol and services. To sum up, if we have money and remember about politeness, patience and responsible driving even when we have problems with finding a parking space and we get nervous- we can enjoy driving for many years, for sure. 5.5.2 Question 1. Do the cars have a lot of advantages? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the most disadvantage point? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. What characters shouldn’t a driver have when driving on the roads? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 4. How do passengers feel when traveling by cars? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Give your opinions about advantages and disadvantages of cars ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.5.3 Find out meanings and pronunciation of words Vocabulary Pronunciation Meaning Accident Alcohol Available Both Careful Cause Comfortable Complicated Crash Dangerous Doubt Environment Expensive Force Jam Moreover Nervous Patience Politeness Pollute Prefer Public vehicles Relax Sensible To sum up Transport Trip Views Waste Unit 6 THE TELEPHONE 6.1 Conversation 6.2 Grammar: 6.2.1 Can and Could The same: - Talk about ability, but could is more general: We can go for a walk in the evening. We could go for walks every evening. - The same structure in three forms: + Positive: S + CAN / COULD + V1 + (Others). + Negative: S + CANNOT / COULD NOT + V1 + (Others). + Question: CAN (NOT) / COULD (NOT) + S + V1 + others? Yes, S + can / could. No, S + cannot / could not. WH + CAN (NOT) / COULD (NOT) + S + V1 + others? Give information. - Make a suggestion or ask for help, but Could is more formal: Can / Could you give me a hand? Can / Could I borrow your book? Can / Could I have your phone numbers? The differences - Could is the past of Can: I can swim really well. I could swim when I was five. When we came to the store, we could smell burning. - Could talks about possible actions now or in the future: The air is cooler. It could be rain. I don’t know when they’ll be here. They could arrive at any time. - Could is less sure than Can: He is strong. He could lift a mountain. I’m hungry. I could eat a turkey. They spoke in a very clear voice so that everyone could understand what they said. 6.2.2 Passive sentence Positives: S BE V3/ED Others The ship is launched this week. All appliances are installed on the deck. This article was written by one of my friends. Those ports were built in the war. Negatives: S BE NOT V3/ED Others The ship isn’t launched this week. All appliances aren’t installed on the deck. This article wasn’t written by one of my friends. Those ports weren’t built in the war. Questions: - Y / N: BE (NOT) S V3/ED Others Is / isn’t the ship launched this week? Are / aren’t all appliances installed on the deck? Was / wasn’t this article written by one of my friends? Were / weren’t those ports built in the war? Answers: Yes, S + be / No, S + be not. Wh: WH BE (NOT) S V3/ED Others When is / isn’t the ship launched? Where are / aren’t all appliances installed? By whom was / wasn’t this article written? When were / weren’t those ports built? Answers: Information. 6.3 Vocabulary 6.3.1 The text THE USEFULNESS OF THE TELEPHONE The telephone is a telecommunications (telecoms) device which is used to transmit and receive sound (most commonly speech). Most telephones operate through transmission of electric signals over a complex telephone network which allows almost any phone user to communicate with almost anyone. Telephone helps us communicate in far distances. With the advance functions of the modern phone system, such as the VoIP, we can cost effectively contact people even in remote areas as long as connected to the internet. There are also functions such as call forwarding, call screening and many others that put ease in our way of communicating. The telephone was invented so you can talk to someone on the other side of the world! It is useful because it is device for making communication with another person. It is useful as well for a company who utilize a small business telephone system because of its benefits. The usefulness of the telephone has made it one of the most indispensable household and business appliances. It is voted as the best invention of the 20th century. 6.3.2 Pronunciation Nouns: Advance [ədˈvɑːns] sự tiến bộ Appliance [ǝ’plaiǝns] thiết bị, dụng cụ Benefit [‘benefit] lợi ích Call forwarding [kↄ:l ‘fↄwǝdiŋ] chuyển tiếp cuộc gọi Call screening [kↄ:l ‘ski:niŋ] chặn cuộc gọi Century [‘senʧǝri] thế kỉ Company [‘kʌpǝni] công ty Device [di’vais] thiết bị Distance [‘distǝns] khoảng cách Electric signal [i’lektrik signəl] tính hiệu điện Function [‘fʌŋkʃn] chức năng Household [‘haushould] hộ gia đình Network [‘netwɜ:k] mạng Phone user [fǝʊn ‘ju:zǝr] người dùng điện thoại Remote area [ri’mout ‘eǝriǝ] vùng xa xôi Sound [saund] âm thanh Speech [spi:tʃ] lời nói System [‘sistǝm] hệ thống Telecommunications [‘telikə,mju:ni’keiʃnz] viễn thông Transmission [trænz’miʃn] sự phát, sự truyền Verbs: Allow [ǝ’lau] cho phép Communicate [kəˈmjuːnɪkeɪt] giao tiếp, truyền thông Connect [kəˈnekt] nối, kết nối Contact [ˈkɒntækt] liên lạc Cost [kɒst] chi phí Invent [ɪnˈvent] phát minh Operate [ˈɒpəreɪt] hoạt động, vận hành Put ease [pʊt iːz] làm dịu Receive [rɪˈsiːv] nhận Transmit [trænsˈmɪt] truyền/ phát tín hiệu Utilize [‘ju:tilaiz] dùng, sử dụng Vote [vəʊt] bầu, biểu quyết Adjectives: Advanced [ədˈvɑːnst] tiên tiến Complex [ˈkɒmpleks] phức tạp, rắc rối Far [fɑː(r)] xa Indispensable [,indis’pensəbl] rất cần thiết, không thể thiếu. Modern [ˈmɒdn] hiện đại Adverbs: Almost [ˈɔːlməʊst] hầu như, Commonly [ˈkɒmənli] thường thường, lắm khi Effectively [ɪˈfektɪvli] có hiệu quả Even [ˈiːvn] thậm chí, ngay cả Through [θruː] xuyên, suốt 6.4 Exercises 6.4.1 Answer questions: 1. What purpose do people use the telephone? _______________________________________________________________________ 2. How do the telephones operate? _______________________________________________________________________ 3. How far can people communicate by telephone? _______________________________________________________________________ 4. Can you name some functions of telephone? What are they? _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Is the telephone useful for business only? _______________________________________________________________________ 6. Who can people talk to on the telephone? _______________________________________________________________________ 7. What is the telephone called in the 20th century? _______________________________________________________________________ 8. Use dictionaries to find out the synonyms of the words below: Anyone (pron) Ease (n) Appliance (n) Remote (adj) Benefit (n) Utilize (v) 6.4.2 Divide the phrases of words into two columns. (No.1 and No.9 are examples) 1. Helps to build a healthy relationship. 2. Anonymous threats. 3. Sexual abuses. 4. A bridge for people being miles away. 5. Saves time, money and energy. 6. Immediate medium to contact one another and pass urgent messages. 7. These days marketing calls are a headache for everyone. 8. Helps to file complaint against anyone without identity and save someone as soon as possible. 9. Helps terrorism. 10. Gives life for thousands of telemarketers. 11. Wastes the time of teens. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Helps to build a healthy relationship. 9. Helps terrorism. 6.4.3 Write a paragraph about the telephone (you can link some ideas above) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 6.5 Consolidation 6.5.1 Extra reading ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL Evolution of the Telegraph into the Telephone In the 1870s, two inventors Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically (the telephone). Both men rushed their respective designs to the patent office within hours of each other, Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone first. Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell entered into a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone, which Bell won. While Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson worked on the harmonic telegraph at the insistent urging of Hubbard and other backers, Bell nonetheless met in March 1875 with Joseph Henry, the respected director of the Smithsonian Institution, who listened to Bell's ideas for a telephone and offered encouraging words. Spurred on by Henry's positive opinion, Bell and Watson continued their work. By June 1875 the goal of creating a device that would transmit speech electrically was about to be realized. They had proven that different tones would vary the strength of an electric current in a wire. To achieve success they therefore needed only to build a working transmitter with a membrane capable of varying electronic currents and a receiver that would reproduce these variations in audible frequencies. 6.5.2 Questions 1. What were invented in the 1870s? _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Who was the winner in a famous legal battle over the invention of the telephone? _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Who was Thomas Watson? _______________________________________________________________________ 4. When did Bell meet Joseph Henry, the respected director of the Smithsonian Institution? _______________________________________________________________________ 5. What did the inventors do to achieve success with a membrane capable of varying electronic currents? _______________________________________________________________________ 6.5.3 Give the phonetic symbols and meanings of words below Vocabulary Pronunciation Meaning Audible Backer Device Electrician Electronic currents Encourage Harmonic Independently Insistent urging Inventor Legal battle Nonetheless Offered Patent Proven Realize Reproduce Respective Rush Spur Transmit Wire Unit 7 THE RADIO 7.1 Conversation SHIP TO SHORE RADIO COMMUNICATION Radio Officer: Coastguard, Coastguard. This is Milamar. I read you poor 2 with signal strength 2 weak. Advise try channel 24. Over. Coastguard: Milamar, Milamar. This is Cape Town Coastguard. Change to channel 24. Repeat. Change to channel 24. Over. Radio Officer: Coastguard, Coastguard. This is Milamar on channel 24. I am ready to receive your message. Over. Coastguard: Milamar, Milamar. This is Cape Town Coastguard. There is a severe localized storm with wave height of 40 feet 25 miles Southwest of your present position. Expected to close in the next 2 hours. Advise course three two zero. Repeat. Advise course three two zero to avoid height seas. Over. Radio Officer: Coastguard, Coastguard. This is Milamar. Say again. Say again. Over. Coastguard: Milamar, Milamar. This is Cape Town Coastguard. Wave height of 40 feet closing from Southwest. Expect arrival your position 2 hours. Advise course three two zero. Repeat. Three two zero. Over. Radio Officer: Coastguard, Coastguard. This is Milamar. I cannot read you. Repeat. I cannot read you. Over. Coastguard: Milamar25 Southwest..2 hours..40. three two zero.. three two zero Radio Officer: Coastguard, Coastguard. Message received. Thank you. Out. 7.2 Grammar: Imperatives - Give orders, warnings or instructions to somebody. - Often use in informal situation. 7.2.1 Positive: - V1! Go! Smile! - V1 + Preposition! Go up! Go down! - V1 + Object! Open the door! Take your seat! Let him out! Say hello! - V1 + Adjective / Adverb! Be quiet! Run fast! 7.2.2 Negative: - Don’t + V1! Don’t waste money! Don’t jump up and down like that! Don’t go near the river-bank! 7.3 Vocabulary 7.3.1 Pronunciation Nouns: Advent [ˈædvənt] sự đến, sự trông đợi Aeroplane [ˈeərəpleɪn] máy bay Aircraft [ˈeəkrɑːft] máy bay Alert [əˈlɜːt] sự báo động, cảnh giác Army [ˈɑːmi] quân đội Authority [ɔːˈθɒrəti] chính quyền Battle [ˈbætl] trận đánh Broadcasting [ˈbrɔːdkɑːstɪŋ] việc phát thanh hay phát hình Comedies [ˈkɒmədiz] hài kịch Detection [dɪˈtekʃn] phát hiện Development [dɪˈveləpmənt] sự phát triển Drama [ˈdrɑːmə] vở kịch Emergency [iˈmɜːdʒənsi] tình trạng khẩn cấp Entertainment [ˌentəˈteɪnmənt] giải trí Equipment [ɪˈkwɪpmənt] thiết bị Era [ˈɪərə] thời kỳ, kỷ nguyên Event [ɪˈvent] sự kiện Field [fiːld] cánh đồng, lĩnh vực Global Maritime Distress [ˈɡləʊblˈm„rɪtaɪm dɪˈstres] Golden Age [ˈɡəʊldən eɪdʒ] thời hoàng kim Land [lænd] đất Marine telegraphy [məˈriːn-tiˈleɡrəfi] điện báo hàng hải Method [ˈmeθəd] phươnng pháp Morse code [ˌmɔːs ˈkəʊd] hệ thống chữ Moóc Navy [ˈneɪvi] hải quân Operator [ˈɒpəreɪtə(r)] người điều khiển Presentation [ˌpreznˈteɪʃn] trình bày, trình diễn Russian fleet [ˈrʌʃn fliːt] hạm đội Nga Safety System [ˈseɪfti ˈsɪstəm] hệ thống an toàn Satellite [ˈs„təlaɪt] vệ tinh Scouting [ˈskaʊtɪŋ] hoạt động hướng đạo Shore stations [ʃɔː(r) ˈsteɪʃnz] trạm bờ biển Sinking [sɪŋkɪŋ] chìm Technology [tekˈnɒlədʒi] công nghệ Tool [tuːl] dụng cụ Vicinity [vəˈsɪnəti] vùng phụ cận World War [wɜːld wɔː(r)] thế chiến Adjectives: Commercial [kəˈmɜːʃl] thương mại Dramatic [drəˈmætɪk] đầy kịch tính Earliest [ˈɜːliɪst] sớm nhất External [ɪkˈstɜːnl] bên ngoài Immediate [ɪˈmiːdiət] ngay, liền International [ˌɪntəˈnæʃnəl] quốc tế Maritime [ˈmærɪtaɪm] hàng hải Most memorable [məʊstˈmemərəbl] đáng nhớ nhất Point-to-point [pɔɪnt tə pɔɪnt] việc nối trực tiếp linh kiện với nhau bằng các chân của chúng hoặc thông qua các trạm hàn Pre-war [priː wɔː(r)] trước chiến tranh Principal [ˈprɪnsəpl] chính, chủ yếu Rapid [ˈræpɪd] nhanh Ship-board [ʃɪp bɔːd] trên tàu Shore-based [ʃɔː(r) beɪst] căn cứ ở bờ biển Telegraphic [ˌtelɪˈɡræfɪk] điện tín, điện báo Terrestrial [təˈrestriəl] trên mặt đất, trên cạn Unique [juˈniːk] độc nhất Widespread [ˈwaɪdspred] lan rộng Wireless [ˈwaɪələs] vô tuyến, không dây Verbs: Ensure [ɪnˈʃʊə(r)] bảo đảm Improve [ɪmˈpruːv] cải tiến List [lɪst] lập danh sách Localize [‘ləʊkəlaiz] xác định vị trí, định vị Pass [pɑːs] vượt qua, đi ngang qua Provide [prəˈvaɪd] cung cấp Relay [ˈriːleɪ] làm theo ca kíp / đặt rơ-le Rescue [ˈreskjuː] cứu nguy, giải thoát Take [teɪk] cầm, nắm, lấy Adverbs: Nearby [ˌnɪəˈbaɪ] ở vị trí gần, không xa Prepositions: Among [əˈmʌŋ] trong số During [ˈdjʊərɪŋ] trong khi In addition [ɪnəˈdɪʃn] ngoài ra Including [ɪnˈkluːdɪŋ] bao gồm 7.3.2 The text USES OF RADIO Early uses were maritime, for sending telegraphic messages using Morse code between ships and land. The earliest users included the Japanese Navy scouting the Russian fleet during the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. One of the most memorable uses of marine telegraphy was during the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, including communications between operators on the sinking ship and nearby vessels, and communications to shore stations listing the survivors. Radio was used to pass on orders and communications between armies and navies on both sides in World War I; Besides broadcasting, point-to-point broadcasting, including telephone messages and relays of radio programs, became widespread in the 1920s and 1930s. Another use of radio in the pre-war years was the development of detection and locating of aircraft and ships by the use of radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging). Today, radio takes many forms, including wireless networks and mobile communications of all types, as well as radio broadcasting. Before the advent of television, commercial radio broadcasts included not only news and music, but dramas, comedies, variety shows, and many other forms of entertainment (the era from 1930 to the mid-1950s is commonly called radio's "Golden Age"). Radio was unique among methods of dramatic presentation in that it used only sound. The radio communication equipment is the principal tool in the field of communication between a vessel and such external world as the shore, other ships and aeroplanes. The marine radio communication system now is Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), a new international one using improved terrestrial and satellite technology and ship-board radio systems. It ensures rapid alerting of shore-based rescue and communications authorities in the event of an emergency. In addition, the system alerts vessels in the immediate vicinity and provides improved means of locating survivors. 7.4 Exercises 7.4.1 Answer questions 1. What purposes did people use radio at the beginning? _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Who were the earliest users of radio? _______________________________________________________________________ 3. When was the RMS Titanic sunk? _______________________________________________________________________ 4. How many directions were communicated by radio in the war? _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Did the radio become widespread in 1912? _______________________________________________________________________ 6. What was used in the pre-war years to detect and locate aircraft and ships? _______________________________________________________________________ 7. Do the radios have the unique form? _______________________________________________________________________ 8. How long did the Golden Age of radio last? _______________________________________________________________________ 9. Do the maritime favor to use radio for communicating nowadays? _______________________________________________________________________ 10. Write in two columns the radio communication directions in the past and now. Do they change or unchanged? IN THE PAST NOW NOTE 7.4.2 Study more about the Object Pronouns (Object/O) in the chart, then change the real Objects in the sentences into general forms: S.P (Subject Pronouns) P.A (Possessive Adjectives) O.P (Object Pronouns) I My Me You Your You He She It His Her Its Him Her It We Our Us They Their Them 1. I need two lifeboats. Lower ! 2. The radio is on. Turn off! 3. The earphones are on the floor. Pick up! 4. The helm is little bit a port. Meet ! 5. The ship is altering to starboard. Keep away before the sea! 6. Don’t hold life jackets in your hands! Put on! 7. It is the Bosun’s duty. Let steer! 8. Give some hoses to I and George. Give to! 9. Give wrenches to Carpenter and Greaser! Give to! 10. Do you like some water? I’ll give to. .. 7.4.3 Fill the given words (word groups) in the blanks: a. starboard b. Over c. change d. at your stern e. loud and clear f. 15 g. Do you read me h. 0.6 miles i. my bow j. miles TALKING ON VHF RADIO TO ANOTHER SHIP O.P To the ship on my ___(1)___ bow, course 215, speed ___(2)___ knots. This is container ship Ocean Princess, eight miles away, 045 degrees off your port side, course 300. ___(3)___? 3rdOff (On the VHF) Ocean Princess, Ocean Princess, this is VLBC Niitaka Maru, Niitaka Maru. I read you ___(4)___. Please ___(5)___ to Channel 06. O.P Channel 06, roger. (Changing the channel) Niitaka Maru, this is Ocean Princess. ___(6)___. 3rdOff Ocean Princess. This is Niitaka Maru. I read you loud and clear. O.P According to the ARPA reading, the CPA is 0.5 ___(7)___. I think I can pass you safely on my present course. May I pass you at your bow? Over. 3rdOff You may not pass at my bow. I repeat. You may not pass at ___(8)___. Part at my stern. According to our ARPA, the CPA is 0.4 to ___(9)___. It is too short. Please follow the traffic rules. O.P Roger. I will pass ___(10)___. I will change my course to starboard now. 3rdOff Thank you. I will maintain my course and speed. Back to channel 16. O.P Roger. Back to channel 16. Note: 3rdOff: the Third Officer O.P: Ocean Princess VLBC: Very Large Bulk Carrier 7.4.4 Listen to the conservation: ‘Talking on VHF radio to another ship’ and check your answers. 7.5 Consolidation: 7.5.1 Extra reading HISTORY OF RADIO Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Information is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves pass an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. This can be detected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information. Radios de Rosario Development from a laboratory demonstration to a commercial entity spanned several decades and required the efforts of many practitioners. In 1878, David E. Hughes noticed that sparks could be heard in a telephone receiver when experimenting with his carbon microphone. He developed this carbon-based detector further and eventually could detect signals over a few hundred yards. He demonstrated his discovery to the Royal Society in 1880, but was told it was merely induction, and therefore abandoned further research. Experiments, later patented, were undertaken by Thomas Edison and his employees of Menlo Park. Edison applied in 1885 to the U.S. Patent Office for his patent on an electrostatic coupling system between elevated terminals. The patent was granted as U.S. Patent 465,971 on December 29, 1891. The Marconi Company would later purchase rights to the Edison patent to protect them legally from lawsuits. Tesla demonstrated wireless transmissions during his high frequency and potential lecture of 1891. After continuing research, Tesla presented the fundamentals of radio in 1893. In 1893, in St. Louis, Missouri, Nikola Tesla made devices for his experiments with electricity. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Electric Light Association, he described and demonstrated the principles of his wireless work. The descriptions contained all the elements that were later incorporated into radio systems before the development of the vacuum tube. He initially experimented with magnetic receivers, unlike the coherers (detecting devices consisting of tubes filled with iron filings which had been invented by Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti at Fermo in Italy in 1884) used by Guglielmo Marconi and other early experimenters. A demonstration of wireless telegraphy took place in the lecture theater of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History on August 14, 1894, carried out by Professor Oliver Lodge and Alexander Muirhead. During the demonstration a radio signal was sent from the neighboring Clarendon laboratory building, and received by apparatus in the lecture theater. Vintage Radios In 1895 Alexander Stepanovich Popov built his first radio receiver, which contained a coherer. Further refined as a lightning detector, it was presented to the Russian Physical and Chemical Society on May 7, 1895. A depiction of Popov's lightning detector was printed in the Journal of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society the same year. Popov's receiver was created on the improved basis of Lodge's receiver, and originally intended for reproduction of its experiments. 7.5.2 Find out and write down the phonetics and meanings of the words in the text: Vocabulary Pronunciation Meaning Alternating current Apparatus Coherer Detected Electrical conductor Electromagnetic Electromagnetic waves Elements Frequency Fundamentals Incorporate Induce Lecture Modulation Neighboring Oscillating Phase Potential Property Pulse Radiation Signal Systematically Transmission Vacuum 5.2.3 Make questions and answer about the content of the text above (at least 5 pairs of conversation) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX 1 THE ENGLISH ALPHABET A a N n B b O o C c P p D d Q q E e R r F f S s G g T t H h U u I i V v J j W w K k X x L l Y y M m Z z Vowels = a, e, i, o, u Consonants = b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z. ____________ * The letter “z” is pronounced “zee” in American English and “zed” in British English. APPENDIX 2 NUMBERS one 1st first two 2nd second three 3rd third four 4th fourth five 5th fifth six 6th sixth seven 7th seventh eight 8th eighth nine 9th ninth ten 10th tenth eleven 11th eleventh twelve 12th twelfth thirteen 13th thirteenth fourteen 14th fourteenth fifteen 15th fifteenth sixteen 16th sixteenth seventeen 17th seventeenth eighteen 18th eighteenth nineteen 19th nineteenth twenty 20th twentieth twenty one 21st twenty first twenty two 22nd twenty second twenty three 23rd twenty third twenty four 24th twenty fourth twenty five 25th twenty fifth twenty six 26th twenty sixth twenty seven 27th twenty seventh twenty eight 28th twenty eighth twenty nine 29th twenty ninth thirty 30th thirtieth forty 40th fortieth fifty 50th fiftieth sixty 60th sixtieth seventy 70th seventieth eighty 80th eightieth ninety 90th ninetieth one hundred 100th one hundredth APPENDIX 3 DAYS OF THE WEEK AND MONTHS OF THE YEAR DAYS MONTHS Monday (Mon.) 1. January (Jan.) 8. August (Aug.) Tuesday (Tues.) 2. February (Feb.) 9. September (Sept.) Wednesday (Wed.) 3. March (Mar.) 10. October (Oct.) Thursday (Thurs.) 4. April (Apr.) 11. November (Nov.) Friday (Fri.) 5. May (May) 12. December (Dec.) Saturday (Sat.) 6. June (June) Sunday (Sun.) 7. July (July) USING NUMBERS TO WRITE THE DATE: Month / day / year IN NUMBER FULL WRITING 10 / 31 / 41 October 31 (st), 1941 2 / 9 / 45 September 2 (nd), 1945 4 / 15 / 92 April 15 (th), 1992 5 / 7 / 2000 July 5 (th), 2000 24 /12 / 2005 December 24 (th), 2005 SAYING DATES: USUAL WRITTEN FORM USUAL SPOKEN FORM January 1 (st) January (the) first / the first of January March 2 (nd) March (the) second / the second of March May 3 (rd) May (the) third / the third of May June 4 (th) June (the) fourth / the fourth of June August 5 (th) August (the) fifth / the fifth of August October 10 (th) October (the) tenth / the tenth of October November 27 (th) November (the) twenty-seventh / the twenty seventh of November APPENDIX 4 WAYS OF SAYING THE TIME WRITING READING 9:00 It’s nine o’clock. It’s nine. 9:05 It’s nine-oh-five It’s five (minutes) after nine It’s five (minutes) past nine 9:10 It’s nine ten. It’s ten (minutes) after nine. It’s five (minutes) past nine. 9:15 It’s nine fifteen. It’s a quarter after nine. It’s a quarter past nine. 9:30 It’s nine-thirty It’s half past nine. 9:45 It’s nine forty-five. It’s a quarter to ten. It’s a quarter of ten. 9:50 It’s nine-fifty It’s ten (minutes) to ten. It’s ten (minutes) of ten. 12:00 It’s noon. It’s midnight. A.M (ante meridiem) = morning It’s nine A.M. P.M (post meridiem) = afternoon/evening/night It’s nine P.M APPENDIX 5 IRREGULAR VERBS V1 V2 / VED V3 / VED V1 V2 / VED V3 / VED be become begin bend bite blow break bring build buy catch choose come cost cut do draw drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forget get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt was, were became began bent bit blew broke brought built bought caught chose came cost cut did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forgot got gave went grew hung / hanged had heard hid hit held hurt been become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built bought caught chosen come cost cut done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forgotten gotten/got given gone grown hung / hanged had heard hidden hit held hurt keep know lend leave lose make meet pay put read ride ring run say see sell send shake shut sing sit sleep speak spend stand steal swim take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear win write kept knew lent left lost made met paid put read rode rang ran said saw sold sent shook shut sang sat slept spoke spent stood stole swam took taught tore told thought threw understood woke / waked wore won wrote kept known lent left lost made met paid put read ridden rung run said seen sold sent shaken shut sung sat slept spoken spent stood stolen swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woke / woken / waked worn won written REFERENCE BOOKS 7th edition, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Ditionary, Nxb Oxford. All Japan Seamen’s Union, 2000, Welcome On Board, Minos Agency. Allister Nisbet, Anna Whitcher, Catherine Logie, 1997, English for Seafarers – Study Pack 1, Nxb Marlins. Betty Schrampfer Azar, 1996, Basic English Grammar, Nxb Longman. Công ty AST, ISM Code, 2009. ĐHHH, 2002, A course of English for seafarer, tài liệu lưu hành nội bộ. Đỗ Thái Bình (chủ biên), 2006, Tiếng Anh kỹ thuật đóng tàu, Nxb Giao thông vận tải. Ikuo Koike, Emeritus Kiyoaki Nakao, Kingo Hanamoto, 1998, Communicative English learning system, Eikyo. IMO, 1985, Standard Marine Navigational Vocabulary, London. Lynda Snowdown, 2005, Ships and Boats, Nxb Mỹ Thuật. Lynda Snowdown, 2005, The Sea, Nxb Mỹ Thuật. 12. Marlin Dockray, 1998, Cases and Materials, Cavendish publishing limited. 13. Maritime communication, 1998, Standard English vocabulary for GMDSS courses, Hà Nội. 14. Nguyễn Văn Phòng, Vũ Phi Hoàng, 1995, Từ điển Hàng Hải Anh Việt, Nxb Giao thông vận tải. 15. Tom Hutchinson, 1999, Lifelines – Elementary, Nxb Oxford University. 16. Viện Ngôn ngữ học, 2004, Từ điển Anh - Việt, Nxb Thế Giới. 17. W. A. McEwen and A. H. Lewis, 1994, Encyclopedia of Nautical knowledge, Cornell Maritime Press. Các trang WEB:

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