Xã hội học - Recognition, control, and investigation of drug abuse

Informants: Motivations and Types Problem Informants. Some informants have personalities that make them difficult, if not impossible, to manage. Egotistical Informants. Investigators who provide positive reinforcement motivate egotistical informants to continue supplying information. Informants with the James Bond Syndrome. While working as informants, they imagine themselves in a police of spy drama.

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NINETEENRecognition, Control, and Investigation of Drug AbuseLEARNING OBJECTIVESIdentify and describe several opium‑derived drugsList and describe synthetic narcoticsIdentify and distinguish among stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogensOutline techniques used in investigating dangerous drugs and narcoticsAssess the motives, methods, and management of drug informants Describe the process of identifying and conducting raids on clandestine labsExplain the type of information necessary to establish probable cause and obtain search warrantsBe familiar with drug evidence handling and potential security problems19-1OPIUM-DERIVED DRUGS Opium One of the first drugs of abuse was opiumMorphine Morphine is obtained from raw opiumHeroin (Diacetylmorphine) Heroin was found to be considerably stronger than morphine in 189019-2(a)OPIUM-DERIVED DRUGS (cont'd) Codeine The alkaloid codeine is found in raw opium in concentrations from 0.7 to 2.3 percent. It was first isolated in 1832 as an impurity in a batch of morphine.Other Opium Derivatives Other opium derivatives abused and stolen from pharmacies, hospitals, and physicians are Dilaudid, Papaverine, and Pantopon.19-2(b)HEROIN FILLED LATEX BALLOONSHeroin is smuggled into the U.S. in a variety of waysDrug couriers often swallow heroin filled balloons before boarding commercial planesMost heroin is smuggled into the U.S. from Columbia19-3(Courtesy Drug Enforcement Administration)SYNTHETIC NARCOTICS Synthetic narcotics, though chemically related to the opium alkaloids, are produced entirely within the laboratoryMeperidine (Pethidine) The commercial name for meperidine is Demerol, and it was the first synthetic narcoticMethadoneA heroin-dependent person can be treated with doses of methadone as a replacement for heroin19-4STIMULANTS Drugs falling into the stimulants group directly stimulate the central nervous systemCocaine Cocaine is a naturally occurring stimulant that is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca)Amphetamines Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine are closely related chemically19-5(a)STIMULANTS (cont'd) Phenmetrazine (Preludin), Methylphenidate (Ritalin), and Pemoline (Cylert)Phenmetrazine is related chemically to the amphetamines, and its abuse produces similar effectsCrystalized Methamphetamine Crystalized methamphetamine, better known as crystal meth and speed during the 1960s and 1970sMethcathinone Methcathinone, called cat or goob, is a pyschomotor stimulant with a chemical structure similar to methamphetamine19-5(b)POWDERED COCAINECocaine is a naturally occurring stimulantIt is extracted from the leaves of coca plantsThe powder is often adultered at each level of sale by drug dealers19-6(Courtesy Drug Enforcement Administration)COCAINE TRAFFICKING PATTERNSDrug dealing is an international businessMuch of the illegal cocaine arriving in the U.S. is smuggled in from countries in South AmericaThe Drug Enforcement Administration seeks assistance from foreign police officials in its war on drugs19-7(Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice)KILO PACKAGES OF COCAINECocaine may be smuggled into the U.S. in single batchesLower-level drug dealers adulterate or “cut” the cocaine before re-saleThe cutting process increases the profits for the dealers19-8(Courtesy Drug Enforcement Administration)DEPRESSANTS (SEDATIVES) Glutethimide (Doriden) Depressants of sedatives depress the central nervous system and are prescribed in small doses to reduce restlessness and emotional tension and to induce sleepWhen introduced in 1954 glutethimide was wrongly believed to be a nonaddictive barbiturate substituteMethaqualone Methaqualone was at one time very popular in the United States but has since been removed from the market19-9(a)DEPRESSANTS (SEDATIVES) (cont'd) Meprobamate First synthesized in 1960 as a mild tranquilizer, meprobamate is distributed in the nited States under the generic brand nameOxyContin Another powerful narcotic that is presently sold legally is OxyContin19-9(b)HALLUCINOGENS The hallucinogenic drugs, natural or synthetic, distort perception of objective reality.Phencyclidine (PCP) Phencyclidine, commonly called PCP, in pharmaceutically pure form is a solid white powderMethylenedioxy Methamphetamine (MDMA)Commonly known as MDMA or “ecstasy,” is a bitter white powerLysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD 25)LSD is a semisynthetic compound produced from lysergic acid. An average does of 30 to 50 microgramsCabout the size of a pinpointCwill take the user on a “trip” lasting 10 to 12 hours19-10(a)HALLUCINOGENS (cont'd) Mescaline (Peyote) The primary active ingredient of the peyote cactus is the hallucinogen mescalinePsilocybin and Psilocyn Psilocybin and psilocyn are obtained from mushrooms generally grown in MexicoMarijuana Marijuana is made by crushing or chopping the dried leaves and flowers of the plant into small piecesThe cleaned or manicured leaves are then rolled into a cigarette and smoked19-10(b)HALLUCINOGENS (cont'd) Hashish Hashish is processed by drying to produce a drug several times as potent as marijuanaHashish Oil Liquid hashish is produced by concentrating THCKetamine Ketamine hydrochloride is a synthetic drug and is an anesthetic agent that has legitimate uses19-10(c)KETAMINEKetamine is a synthetic drugIt was developed as an anesthetic agent in the 1960sToday its use has been associated with all night parties called “raves”19-11(Courtesy Sergeant Christopher McKissick and Detective Tyler Parks, Port Orange, Florida, Police Department)INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES Most of the techniques used in investigating dangerous-drug and narcotics cases are the same as those used in investigating other cases; however there are some unique procedures.The Purchase One important aspect is identification of the source. It is desirable to make more than one direct purchase from a seller, if possible.The Apprehension All arrests should be as unobtrusive as possible to prevent them from becoming common knowledge on the street19-12DRUG INFORMANTS: MOTIVES, METHODS, AND MANAGEMENT Informants: Motivations and Types Problem Informants. Some informants have personalities that make them difficult, if not impossible, to manage.Egotistical Informants. Investigators who provide positive reinforcement motivate egotistical informants to continue supplying information.Informants with the James Bond Syndrome. While working as informants, they imagine themselves in a police of spy drama.19-13(a)DRUG INFORMANTS: MOTIVES, METHODS, AND MANAGEMENT (cont'd) Wannabe Informants. They now seek to become involved in law enforcement as informants.Perversely Motivated Informants. These informants offer their services in order to identify undercover agents.Restricted-Use Informants. By virtue of their criminal background or other status, these pose special management challenges. 19-12(b)OFFICER TALKING TO DRUG DEALER INFORMANTInformants in drug enforcement are uniqueInvestigators must know what motivates themThe informants must be carefully managed19-13© Bonnie KaminDEPARTMENT POLICY REGARDING MANAGING INFORMANTS Agencies should not leave the management of drug informants exclusively to investigatorsFormulating a written policy ensures consistency in the use and management of CIs and serves as a guide for inexperienced investigatorsThe Informant File. This file is used to document every encounter19-14(a)DEPARTMENT POLICY REGARDING MANAGING INFORMANTS (cont'd)Phenmetrazine (Preludin), Methylphenidate (Ritalin), and Pemoline (Cylert)Phenmetrazine is related chemically to the amphetamines, and its abuse produces similar effects.Investigator-Informant Contact Procedures. The department must establish investigator-informant contact procedures and train employees in their use.Informant Payments. Payments to CIs can be divided into two distinct categoriesCawards and rewards.19-14(b)CLANDESTINE DRUG LABORATORIES Illicit operations that produce a variety of illegal drugs for sale and distribution; due to the chemicals, processes used, and workers= inexperience, pose serious danger to police and firefighters, as well as the public.Clandestine drug laboratories throughout the United States produce a variety of illegal drugs for sale and distribution.Clandestine laboratory operations are typically identified in several ways: fire investigationsinformation from informantstips from the community19-15METH LABS Illegal laboratories that manufacture methamphetamine; range from industrial-size organizations to one-person tweeker labs, with prevalence skyrocketing due to availability of “recipes” and chemicals via the Internet19-16METH LABSMeth labs are one of the fastest-growing types of clandestine labs todaySome dealers have developed small labs that can produce quantities from one ounce to one poundThese small labs create significant problems for law enforcement19-17(Courtesy Drug Enforcement Administration)CONDUCTING A LABORATORY RAID Conducting a raid on an occupied laboratory requires careful planning. Normally, a planning meeting involves: the police tactical unit bomb squad hazardous-material or chemical-waste disposal personnela chemist and the fire department representatives 19-18METH LAB RAIDThe methamphetamine cooking process is dangerous due to fumes and volatility of ingredientsAfter the scene is secured the assessment team (as shown) entersTeam members wear special protector equipment and breathing gear19-19(Courtesy Detective David Street, Riverside County, California, Sheriff’s Department)SEARCH WARRANTS AND PROBABLE CAUSE Officers engaged in drug enforcement must understand the legal elements necessary to constitute probable cause for obtaining search warrants.Law Enforcement Background of the Warrant Applicant Past Reliability of the Confidential InformantInformation Supplied by the InformantCorroboration of the Information Supplied19-20EVIDENCE HANDLING AND SECURITY PROBLEMS Aside from the burglaries, larcenies, and other crimes committed because of narcotics, there are additional related problems sprouting from the drug-culture vineSome of these involve the police officers= integrity19-21(a)EVIDENCE HANDLING AND SECURITY PROBLEMS (cont'd) The handling and securing of narcotics and dangerous drugs after they are collected and seized, has emerged as an area of growing concernThe evidence must be protected against loss from the outside and sometimes from inside the police agency19-21(b)

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