Xã hội học - Investigators, the investigative process, and the crime scene

Overall coordination Handled by assigned case agent Power to call in additional resources & coordinate all investigative activities Technical services Crime laboratory personnel & supervisors Investigative services Interviewing witnesses and victims Neighborhood canvass Suspect field interrogations

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TWOInvestigators, the Investigative Process, and the Crime SceneWHAT IS A CRIME?A crime is the commission or omission of any act, which is prohibited or required by the penal code of an organized political state, to which some punishment or sanction is attached.ClassificationsFelonyPunishable by death or imprisonment for more than one year in a state prison.MisdemeanorPunishable by fine and/or imprisonment for up to one year in a local or county jail.Infraction or ViolationMinor offenses punishable by a fine only.2-1THE INVESTIGATORSomeone who gathers, documents and evaluates evidence.Strong professional training and experienceStrong degree of self-disciplineUses legally approved & ethical methodsStrong people skillsIncludes all evidence of innocence as well as guiltUses systematic methods of inquiryUses both inductive and deductive reasoningCompassionate, not calloused and cynicalHas wide ranging contacts across many occupationsRemains objective at all timesLeaves nothing to chance during investigation2-2THE INVESTIGATIVE PROCESSObjectivesEstablish if a crime was committedCollect, document and preserve evidenceIdentify and apprehend the suspect(s)Recover stolen propertyAssist in the prosecution of the person(s) charged with the crime(s)2-3THE PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONThe actions taken at the scene of a crime immediately following its detection and report to the policeReceipt of information and initial responseEmergency careCrime scene controlBOLO alertsCrime scene determinationEvidence The report2-4FOLLOW-UP INVESTIGATIONSubsequent investigationContacting witnesses who left the sceneChecking out suspect(s) alibiGathering additional evidence from other locationsTalk with informantsAttempt to locate additional witnessesEvaluate evidence collected and laboratory results of testsObtain search and/or arrest warrantsRecover stolen propertyConfer with prosecutor2-5CRIME SCENELocation where the offense was committedMay include surrounding areas where evidence may be locatedAlways start big . . . It’s much easier to make it smaller than to expand it at a later timeThere may be more than one crime sceneMacroscopic versus Microscopic scenes2-6ORGANIZATION OF THE CRIME SCENEOverall coordinationHandled by assigned case agentPower to call in additional resources & coordinate all investigative activitiesTechnical servicesCrime laboratory personnel & supervisorsInvestigative servicesInterviewing witnesses and victimsNeighborhood canvassSuspect field interrogations2-7CATEGORIES OF EVIDENCECorpus Delicti evidenceEvidence that helps to prove the elements of the crime(s)Associative evidenceEvidence that connects the suspect to the scene and/or victim or connects the scene/victim to the suspectIt is bidirectionalTrace evidenceSmall or microscopic evidence, or evidence in limited amounts2-8EVIDENCE RECOVERY LOG A chronological record of who found what evidence, where, witnessed by whom, and notations about other ways the evidence may have been documented, e.g., photography2-9EVIDENCE RECOVERY LOGThe evidence recovery log is an important document which records all pieces of physical evidence found at a crime scene. This is critical if the case is to be successfully prosecuted later.2-10CRIME SCENE CONTROL The actions which the first arriving officer at the crime scene takes to make sure that the integrity of the scene is maintainedControl also includes preventing people at the scene from becoming combatants and separating witnesses2-11CONCEPTUALIZATIONKeep known fact AND inferences in mind when processing sceneFacilitates reconstruction of the offenseIdentification of the modus operandiIdentification of certain types of evidenceAssists in establishing investigative direction2-12CAUTIONDon’t destroy evidenceMake crime scene bigger than expected and shrink as necessaryDon’t overlook fruitful areas for explorationDo more than a cursory examination2-13INCLUSIVENESSObtain every piece of evidenceIf not sure, take it as evidence until it is ruled outDo not dismiss items of possible evidenceBe careful of rationalization and fatigue2-14DOCUMENTATIONConstant ActivityStarts with rough shorthand field notesSketchesDiagrams to scaleWAYS TO DOCUMENT A CRIME SCENE VISUALLY INCLUDE:Video tapingPhotographingSketching (Courtesy Lewiston, Maine, Police Department)2-15THREATS TO INVESTIGATORS HEALTH AND SAFETY AT CRIME SCENESInsect bitesHIV/AIDSHepatitis B and C Tuberculosis2-16MAJOR CONSIDERATIONS OF THE CRIME SCENE SEARCH Boundary Determination Choice of Search PatternsInstruction of PersonnelCoordinationDocumentation2-17CRIME SCENE SEARCH PATTERNSThe crime scene coordinator may choose from a variety of crime scene search patterns based upon the type and size of the crime scene.2-18SpiralStrip/LineGridZone/QuadrantPie/Wheel

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