Xã hội học - Computer crime

A virus is a malicious program that is secretly inserted into normal software or a computer's active memory and runs when the host runs; causes effects ranging from annoying messages and deletion of data to interference with the computer's operation A worm is a malicious program that attacks a computer system directly, rather than infecting a host program; spreads rapidly through the internet or e-mail

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SIXTEENComputer Crime LEARNING OBJECTIVESOutline the types of crimes in which computer is the target Discuss computers as an instrumentality of the crime Describe computers as incidental to the crime Explain crimes associated with the prevalence of computers Understand the tools that computer criminals use to commit crime Discuss debates regarding privacy issues concerning the regulation of the Internet Outline profiles of computer crime suspects Explain techniques for investigating computer crime Assess methods to prevent computer crimes16-1COMPUTER ABUSEAny intentional act involving knowledge of computer use or technology in which the perpetrator could have made a gain and the victim could have experienced a loss; includes acts that may not be covered by criminal laws16-2COMPUTER CRIMEAny illegal act in which knowledge of computer technology is used to commit the offense16-3TYPOLOGIES OF COMPUTER CRIME The crimes include the denial of expected service or the alteration of dataComputer Manipulation CrimesData Alteration or DenialNetwork Intrusion and Theft of DataDenial of ServiceComputer Vandalism16-4THE COMPUTER AS AN INSTRUMENTALITY OF THE CRIME TheftMuch information stored in a computer can have value to the ownerTheft of ServicesThe use of these proprietary services without payment is theftFraudFraud using a computer exploits the trust, guaranteed by law, in a business transactionThreat and HarassmentThe U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) maintains a Web site that details a range of threatening behaviors conducted on the internet16-5COMMON INTERNET SCAMS16-6According to the Internet Fraud Watch, these were the top 10 rip-offs on the Internet in 1997:►Web auctions: Items bid for but never delivered by the sellers, value of items inflated, shills suspected of driving up bids, prices increased after highest bids accepted►Internet services: Charges for services that were supposedly free, payment for online and Internet services that were never provided or falsely represented►General merchandise: From toys to clothes, goods never delivered or not as advertised►Computer equipment and software: Sales of computer products that were never delivered or were misrepresented►Pyramids and multilevel marketing: Schemes in which profits were made only from recruiting others, not from sales of goods or services to the end users►Business opportunities and franchises: Empty promises of big profits with little or no work by investing in prepackaged businesses or franchise operations►Work-at-home plans: Materials and equipment sold with false promises of payment for piecework performed at home►Easy credit cards: False promises of credit cards to people with bad credit histories upon payment of up-front fees►Prizes and sweepstakes: Requests for up-front fees to claim winnings that were never awarded►Book sales: Genealogies, self-help improvement books, and other publications that were never delivered or were misrepresented(Source: Dallas Morning News, Feb. 16, 1998, P. 2d.)COMPUTERS AS INCIDENTAL TO THE CRIME In this category the computer does not conduct the illegal transaction, it simply facilitates it. Examples include:Money LaunderingCriminal EnterpriseChild PornographyPedophilia and Sexual Assault16-7CRIMES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PREVALENCE OF COMPUTERS Intellectual Property ViolationsMisuse of Telephone SystemsComponent Theft and CounterfeitingIdentity TheftCorporate Crime16-8COSTS OF SOFTWARE PIRACYThe Business Software Alliance (BSA):is the principal software industry anti-piracy resourceit estimates losses to piracy in the U.S. alone as 2.5 million dollarsit estimates world-wide losses at 11.7 million dollars16-900.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.04.5MiddleEast/AfricaEasternEuropeLatinAmericaAsia/PacificWesternEuropeNorthAmerica19992000Dollar losses by region (Billions)(Source: International Planning and Research Corporation, Sixth Annual BSA Global Software Piracy Study (Washington, DC: Business Software Alliance, May 2001): retrieved from www.bsa.org/resources/2001-05-21.55pdf, Aug. 30, 2001.)CLONED CELLULAR PONEThe use of cloned cellular phones is popular among criminalsDrug users find cloned phones very useful16-10© Thomas Brummett/Photodisc)TOOLS USED BY COMPUTER CRIMINALS TO COMMIT CRIMESDiscovery ToolsMost network intrusions attack targets of opportunityCryptoanalysis ToolsBruce Schneier defines cryptanalysis as the art and science of accessing secured information without conventional means ExploitsExploits are a generic class of programs that are written to take advantage of a security hold16-11(a)TOOLS USED BY COMPUTER CRIMINALS TO COMMIT CRIMES (Cont’d)Attack CodesAttack code is malicious software intended to impair or destroy the function of another computer or network resourceDelivery Vehicles Delivery vehicles provide computer criminals with a method to deliver their attack software16-11(b)TROJAN HORSEAny computer program that is altered or designed to perform an unwanted or malicious function while appearing to perform a routine or benign function16-12VIRUSES AND WORMSA virus is a malicious program that is secretly inserted into normal software or a computer's active memory and runs when the host runs; causes effects ranging from annoying messages and deletion of data to interference with the computer's operation A worm is a malicious program that attacks a computer system directly, rather than infecting a host program; spreads rapidly through the internet or e-mail16-13HOW VIRUSES ARE SPREADVirus programs are:created by a malicious programmerare hidden within another “harmless” programdestructive to both software and data16-14(Source: Houston Chronicle, Aug. 8, 1988, p. 88; modified, 1998.)PRIVACY ISSUES AND REGULATION OF THE INTERNETOne side of the debate focuses on the vast amount of pornographic material available through the internetProponents for regulation say the web should be treated like any other mediumOpponents of regulation say this would involve limiting free speech and violate the First AmendmentThe debate is ongoing and unresolved to date16-15PROFILES OF COMPUTER CRIMINALSThe most likely suspects in insider computer crime are programmers and system operators.One study of computer criminals within government found:They were considered good employeesTheir median age was 3316-16(a)PROFILES OF COMPUTER CRIMINALS (Cont’d)Seventy-five percent had some college educationThey had been with their respective agencies five yearsSeventy-five percent had been promotedTwo-thirds had above average performance ratingsOne quarter had received performance awards16-16(b)INVESTIGATING COMPUTER CRIMECrime Scene TechniquesFrequently, computer crime evidence will be seized by the execution of a search warrantThis warrant should include information about the computer, data storage devices and any peripherals that may be of concern to investigators, such as scannersDigital Forensic AnalysisDigital forensic analysis is the science of acquiring, preserving, retrieving, and presenting data that has been processed electronically and stored on computer media16-17PREVENTING COMPUTER CRIME Protecting information, largely by making it inaccessible to unauthorized users, is a key element of preventing computer crimesBack-Ups and Redundant File Storage Backups are the single most important security measure a company or individual can take Firewalls A firewall is a device or software that acts as a checkpoint between a network or stand-alone computer and the Internet16-18(a)PREVENTING COMPUTER CRIMEEncryption Encryption is a technique of securing data by scrambling it into nonsense Password DisciplineThe single greatest problem in computer security is password protection16-18(b)

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