Xã hội học - Chương 13: Burglary investigation

Types of evidence an investigator may collect in safe burglary cases include: Broken parts of burglary tools Bold cutters from the suspect's home Slag seized at the scene of a burning job

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THIRTEENBurglary InvestigationLEARNING OBJECTIVESBe familiar with different types of burglarsDescribe appropriate responses to burglaries in progressRecognized burglary toolsExplain several methods of attacking safesIdentify types of evidence to be collected in safe burglariesDescribe the characteristics of residential burglariesUnderstand the investigator's burglary prevention roleOutline strategies for investigating criminal fences and other stolen-property outletsDescribe techniques for reducing the risk for commercial burglary13-1DIMENSIONS OF BURGLARY NATIONALLYOne is committed every 15 secondsTwo-thirds of all burglaries are of residencesResidential losses average $1,381 and nonresidential $1,615 Nationally, 64 percent of all burglaries involve forcible entriesIn general, residences are attacked at front and businesses at the rearBurglaries typically happen when premises are unoccupied13-2(a)DIMENSIONS OF BURGLARY (cont'd)Homes are usually burglarized during the day and businesses at nightThere is little seasonal variation in burglariesBurglary is a difficult crime to solveThe clearance rate nationally is 13 percent13-2(b)TYPES OF BURGLARSThe nature of burglary has stayed the same over timeHow burglaries are committed has changedBurglars may be classified according to:Preferences for premises attackedTypes of property they will stealTheir skill level13-3PROFESSIONAL AND AMATEUR BURGLARSProfessional burglars:plan their burglariesare seldom arrestedsteal large value itemscommit only a few offenses per year13-4(a)PROFESSIONAL AND AMATEUR BURGLARS (cont'd) Amateur burglars:Seldom plan their burglariesAre frequently arrestedWork in small segments of their citySeldom have a “big score”May commit other violent offenses if confrontedOften have lengthy arrest records13-4(b)THE LAW The crime of burglary generally consists of the following elements:breaking and enteringa dwelling house or other building belonging to anotherwith the intent to commit a crime thereinBurglary and related offenses are classified as crimes against the habitation, dwelling, or building itself; no force need be directed against a person13-5APPROACHING THE BURGLARY SCENE AND INITIAL ACTIONS When responding to a burglary-in-progress call, uniformed officers should drive rapidly while avoiding excessive noiseWhen dispatched to a burglary-in-progress call, the uniformed officer working alone should attempt to coordinate his or her arrival time and position with the backup unitIf a burglary has been committed and the police department has a canine unit, the uniformed officer at the scene should request its presence prior to entering the building13-6BURGLARY TOOLSThese tools are often similar to household tools:crowbarsscrewdriversmodified tools used as lockpicks13-7SURREPTITIOUS ENTRIES When police cannot establish a point of entry or exit, the burglary entry is surreptitious. It may have been staged by the occupant, a thief who obtained a duplicate key, loiding, or lock picking.13-8FIRE RESISTANT SAFECharacteristics of these safes include:They are built to protect against fireThey are made of light metalThey provide minimal security13-9MONEY CHESTCharacteristics of the money chest include:They are built to protect against burglaryThey have thick walls and a strong round doorThey provide reasonably good security13-10METHODS OF ATTACKING SAFESBurglars use a variety of methods to attack safes including:The punchPullingThe peelThe ripBlastingDrillingBurningManipulationThe pryThe carry off13-11EVIDENCE TO BE COLLECTED IN SAFE BURGLARY Types of evidence an investigator may collect in safe burglary cases include:Broken parts of burglary toolsBold cutters from the suspect's homeSlag seized at the scene of a burning job13-12(a)EVIDENCE TO BE COLLECTED IN SAFE BURGLARY (cont'd)DNA evidence from burglars sweat bands or blood left at the sceneLatent fingerprints at the sceneParticles of safe insulation on the burglar's person or clothes13-12(b)CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTIAL BURGLARY Residential burglaries are primarily committed during the day, with the front door being the point of attackBlack homeowners are victimized at a higher rate than any other groupThe younger the head of a household is, the more likely that the residence will be burglarizedThe losses associated with residential burglaries are not intrinsically significant13-13HOME BURGLARY LOSSESMost residential burglaries result in relatively low amounts of value lostMost of the low amount-lost burglaries are committed by amateursEven low amount-lost burglaries can create fear in homeowners13-14Amount of LossPercentage of BurglariesNo lossLess than $50$50-$99$100-$249$250-$499$500-$999$1,000 or moreNot known/not available 3.1% 13.8 7.8 19.1 12.0 8.5 21.3 14.5(Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization in the United States-1999 (Washington, DC: U.S> Department of Justice, 2001) p. 75, table 83.)PROPERTY FREQUENTLY TAKEN FROM RESIDENCESMany items taken in burglaries are found in the owner's bedroomGarages and storage sheds are often the locations of larger property stolen for fences13-15Type of PropertyPercentage of BurglariesCashPurse, wallet, credit cardsVehicles or parts (including bicycles)Household furnishingsPortable electronics, photography gear, jewelry, clothingFirearmsTools, machinery6.5% 2.6 4.5 10.5 28.0 2.1 7.9Total 62.1%(Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization in the United States-1999 (Washington, DC: U.S> Department of Justice, 2001) p. 89, table 84.)FENCES Those who knowingly purchase stolen goods at a fraction of its actual worth and then resell it for a considerable profit, but still at a good deal to the buyer13-16TYPES OF FENCESThere are numerous types of fencesAmateursStore owners and individuals who often only but the goods for which they have placed an order with the thiefProfessionalsOccasional or opportunistic fencesProviders of illicit goods and servicesTechnology proficient thieves and fences who do their business on the internet13-7(a)TYPES OF FENCES (cont'd)The police know that the more that receiver markets can be disrupted or eliminated, the greater the likelihood that there will be some reduction in burglaryPolice “sting” operations are an effective means of:combating fencesidentifying active criminals penetrating criminal organizations recovering property13-17(b)STING OPERATIONAn effective means of combating fences, undercover officers set up a legitimate appearing business or other type of location in which they slowly gain a reputation of being a fence. Transactions are videotaped. Property is recovered, other fences are identified, and ultimately thieves began talking openly about criminal matters, creating an important intelligence source.13-18PAWN SHOPSPawnshops are seen by many as part of fencing operationsSome cities have passed laws to help regulate pawn shopsThose same laws help to reduce the number of pawnshops acting as fences13-19© D. Boone/CorbisTHE INVESTIGATORS ROLE IN BURGLARY PREVENTIONInvestigators should tell the burglary victim how to reduce their chances of being re-victimizedFor example, if residents are going on vacation they should:Stop mail and newspaper deliveryUse timers for household lights and radiosAsk a trusted neighbor to report suspicious activity to the police13-20(a)THE INVESTIGATORS ROLE IN BURGLARY PREVENTION (cont'd)For day-to-day home security residents should be encouraged to:Install motion-sensor lightsInstall dead-bolt locksAvoid placing valuables where they can be seenDon’t leave ladders or tools laying around13-20(b)REDUCING COMMERCIAL BURGLARY Business owners should be encouraged to:Prevent easy access to their roofsSecure all vents and roof openingsUse security-providing locks, frames, and doors13-21(a)REDUCING COMMERCIAL BURGLARY (cont'd) Light the exterior of their buildingsEmploy alarm systems and surveillance camerasUse money chests rather than fire-resistant safesPeriodically assess their office security measures13-21(b)

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