The population structure, production and management of Co swine breed in Nghe An province, Vietnam

Nghiên cứu được tiến hành nhằm đánh giá thực trạng chăn nuôi giống lợn Cỏ tại tỉnh Nghệ An, Việt Nam về một số đặc điểm như số lượng, phân bố, cấu trúc đàn lợn. Nghiên cứu được tiến hành từ tháng 8/2011 đến tháng 1/2012. Dựa trên kết quả đánh giá cho thấy giống lợn Cỏ là giống lợn còn lại khá ít. Hiện nay, tại khu vực này có khoảng dưới 500 con. Hầu hết giống lợn này được người dân nuôi tại các nông hộ nhỏ với đầu tư thấp cho chăn nuôi. Đồng thời những hộ chăn nuôi này cũng còn thiếu các kiến thức, kỹ thuật chăn nuôi nên không thể mở rộng được quy mô cũng như chăn nuôi chưa có hiệu quả cao. Giống lợn Cỏ có khả năng sản xuất không cao tuy nhiên nó có khả năng thích ứng và chống chịu bênh tật tốt. Chính vì vậy, chúng ta cần có các chính sách, biện pháp tốt để có thể bảo tồn và phát triển nguồn gen quý hiếm này như đầu tư kỹ thuật chọn giống, dinh dưỡng và quản lý dịch bệnh.

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Nguyễn Hưng Quang và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 107(07): 37 - 43 37 THE POPULATION STRUCTURE, PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF CO SWINE BREED IN NGHE AN PROVINCE, VIETNAM Nguyen Hung Quang1*, Bui Ngoc Son2, R.C Agatep2 1College of Agriculture and Forestry - TNU 2 Laguna State Polytechnic University, Siniloan, Laguna SUMMARY This descriptive-evaluative study was undertaken in order to evaluate the current condition of the Co pig population in Nghe An province, Vietnam in terms of size, structure and effective size. It was conducted from September, 2011 to January, 2012. Based on its current population structure, the Co pig can be classified as a rare breed and even though the effective population size is less than 500. Most of the Co pig raisers are smallholders with insufficient capital and inadequate technical knowledge to expand their operation and the production efficiency. Co pigs had good adaptability and high resistance against diseases. In consideration of the significant contribution of the Co pig, the government should spearhead measures so that the pig breed will be conserved and further developed through the development and application of appropriate technologies related to pig breeding, nutrition and health management. Key words: Co pig, Nghe An, Vietnam, Production, Reproduction INTRODUCTION* Pig production is mainly conducted by smallholders in Vietnam (Singh, 1996). In smallholder farms, availability of local feed resources used for pigs is unstable and unbalanced throughout the year (Hai and Pryor, 1996). At present, exotic and crossbred pigs dominate, while local pigs make up only 26% of the national pig herd, mostly in uplands, rural and remote areas. The decentralized structure of the Vietnamese breeding system, the less developed central coordination and the common use of Artificial Insemination have all supported the spread of exotic pigs in Vietnam, especially at the smallholder level which makes up 80 to 95% of Vietnamese pig production. (Le Thi Thanh Huyen, 2005). The influx of exotic breeds had a strong impact on local pig populations. Today, 10 of 14 local pig breeds are in vulnerable or critical state or face extinction, and all of them show declining populations (Duyet et al, 2003). The Co pig is found in the Highlands of Vietnam. Its very small body size and low * Tel: 0985 588 164 performance are most likely a result of inbreeding (Hot, 1982). Before 1960, Co pigs were common in the central provinces Nghe An, Ha Tinh and Binh Tri Thien (It has been saperated to Quang Binh, Quang Tri and Thua Thien- Hue, 1989), but were strongly reduced in numbers due to the spread of the Mong Cai to central provinces (Ly, 1999). Co pig of the traditional mountain tribesmen Nghe An in general, the pigs are physically small, color and black fur, long snout, small footprint, low fat, lean meat, delicious (Tuyen et al, 2010). Throughout history, people of ethnic minorities in addition to raising pigs for food self-sufficiency in everyday life, the pig has also been associated with many customs and spirituality characterized as "Xen Ban ","Xen Muong”, “Hang Van " ceremonies to sacrifice longevity for grandparents, parents, married and Co pig is required to objects in the great ceremonies in the year of the mountainous areas. However, in about a dozen years back now, before the development of market economy, Co pig has gradually been forgotten. In Quy Hop district, many of the highland, remote areas were virtually absent from the traditional Co breed, while the demand for this breed is growing. Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên Nguyễn Hưng Quang và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 107(07): 37 - 43 38 MATERIAL AND METHODS Research Design: In this study, a cross- sectional survey on the present population structure and management practices of farmers on Co pig was conducted in Nghe An province. All of the Co pig raisers in the area were located and included as respondents. The study was carried out in September 2011 up to January 2012. Respondents of the Study: The raisers of Co pigs in the 3 communes of Quy Hop district in Nghe An province, Vietnam during the conduct of the study were totally enumerated and served as respondents. They were identified by consulting the agriculture extension workers in the district. Determination of the Sample: The study was undertaken in order to evaluate the present population structure and management practices of framer on Co pig. Total enumeration of all raisers of Co pig was done. Statistical Analysis of Data: The gathered data were organized and analyzed in order to determine the answers to the problems posited in the statement of the problem. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The Population Structure of Co Pig: The population of Co pig in Nghe An province, Vietnam from 2008 to 2011 is shows that from a total of only 262 in 2008, the population of Co pig in the province increases by as much as 65.27% to a total of 433 in 2011. Of the 433 identified Co pigs in the province, 66 are breeders, 177 are piglets 2 months old or younger and 190 are fatteners which included pigs that are more than 2 months old up to market age. Out of the 66 breeders, 15 are boars and 51 are sows. Out of the 177 piglets, 75 are males and 102 females and, likewise, out of 190 fatteners, 83 are males and 107 are females. In consideration of the above-mentioned data, the Co pig breed in Nghe An province is considered as rare breed. In 2011, the population is consist only 51 female breeders. Table 1. Population of Co pig from 2008 - 2011 Location Year Commune/village 2008* 2009* 2010* 2011 Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Bắc Sơn Bản Hiêng 70 26.72 83 24.34 90 26.24 109 25.17 Bản Vi 2 0.76 16 4.69 27 7.87 40 9.24 Liên Hợp Xóm Duộc 16 6.11 22 6.45 27 7.87 33 7.62 Xóm Khột 36 13.74 51 14.96 43 12.54 59 13.63 Xóm Na 16 6.11 20 5.87 18 5.25 25 5.77 Xóm Quắn 10 3.82 16 4.69 23 6.71 29 6.70 Yên Hợp Xóm Quèn 77 29.39 86 25.22 80 23.32 87 20.09 Xóm Xài 21 8.02 32 9.38 22 6.41 34 7.85 Xóm Xòi 14 5.34 15 4.40 13 3.79 17 3.93 Total 262 100 341 100 343 100 433 100 Rate of population change (%) From preceding year - 30.15 0.59 26.24 From 2008 - 30.15 30.92 65.27 Annually average (2008- 2011) = 21.76% *Estimates only of the raiser-respondents. The Effective Population Size: Effective population size refers to the number of animals in the population which are capable of reproduction. Based from the population structure, the effective population size was determined to be 416 by employing the formula suggested by Carpena et al (1993). With this, even though the effective population size of the Co pig in the province is less than 500, the breed could not be considered endangered because of the actual increase in the Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên Nguyễn Hưng Quang và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 107(07): 37 - 43 39 annual rate of population change with an average of 21.76% from 2008 to 2011. The Mace- Lande criteria for priority categories as presented by Bondoc (2008) considers a livestock breed to be endangered if the effective population size is less than 500 and there is a population decline of more than 5% per year for 5 years or greater than 10% for last two generations. Table 2. Current population structure of Co pigs Kind of pig Gender Frequency Percentage Boars 15 3.46 Sows 51 11.78 Piglets (newborn- 2months old) Male 75 17.32 Female 102 23.56 Fattener (> 2 months old- market/ slaughtering) Male 83 19.17 Female 107 24.71 Total 433 100.00 Age at First Time of Mating: The data shows 5 (10%) let the Co pig takes the first mating older than 1 year both in boars and gilts. In boar raising, there are 21 respondents with 42% and 24 farmers with 48% who agreed that the first mating of boar Co pig are 6 months old and 1 year old, respectively. There are only 9 raisers with 18% let the gilts take the first mating at 6 months old meanwhile 36 farmers with 72% do it when the gilts are 1 year old. Table 3. Age of Boars and Gilts at first time of mating Age Boars Gilts Frequency % Frequency % 6- months old 21 42.00 9 18.00 1- year old 24 48.00 36 72.00 >1- year old 5 10.00 5 10.00 Total 50 100.00 50 100.00 Age of Culling the Breeders: In sows raising, there are 39 interviewees with 78% of respondents agreed that the old sows should be replaced up to 3 year old, 10 raisers with 20% replaced the old sows when it is up to 6 year old and there is only 1 farmer who let the old sow be replaced older than 6 year old. In the other side, the boar raisers answer that there are 14 raisers with 28% replaced the old boars when it is up to 4 year old, 31 farmers with 62% of respondents rejected the old boars when it is up to 6 year old and there are only 5 respondents with 10% replaced the old sows when it is older than 6 year old. The data also reveals that the old sows should be replaced up to 3 year old when the reproduction ability starts to decrease. Table 4. Age of culling breeder stocks Stock Frequency Percentage Boars Up to 4 year old 14 28.00 5-6 year old 31 62.00 > 6 year old 5 10.00 Total 50 100.00 Sows Up to 3 year old 39 78.00 4-6 year old 10 20.00 > 6 year old 1 2.00 Total 50 100.00 Reasons for Replacing Breeder Stocks: In boar production, total 31 farmers with 31.00% respondents replaced boar when it is old, 19 raisers with 19.00% reject boar when it is sick but Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên Nguyễn Hưng Quang và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 107(07): 37 - 43 40 there are 33 farmers with 33.00% respondents replaced sows when it reduced the reproduction abilities like reduced litter size, lack of milk, less in parenting. Likewise, there are 8 raisers with 8.00% and 9 farmers with 9.00% replaced the sow when it is sock or old, respectively. Table 5. Reasons for replacing the breeder stocks Stock Frequency Percentage Boars Old age 31 31.00 Sick 19 19.00 Sows Old age 9 9.00 Sick 8 8.00 Reduced the reproductive abilities 33 33.00 Total 100 100.00 Source of Replacement Stocks: There are 47 boar raisers with 47.00% and 45 sow raisers with 45.00% of respondents purchase breeder stocks from other farmers or neighbors by hiring; there are only 3 boar raisers with 3.00% and 5 sow raisers with 5.00% of respondents get stocks from own herd. Table 6. Source of replacement stocks Source Frequency Percentage Boars Own stock 3 3.00 Purchase from other farmers/ neighbor 47 47.00 Sows Own stock 5 5.00 Purchase from other farmers/ neighbor 45 45.00 Total 100 100.00 Physical Bases of Selection: In boar production, there are 45 farmers with 10.07% of respondents chose the bases characteristics are color and conformation of the body and size of boar body, 31 raisers with 6.94% of farmers chose the size of testicles which related to mating abilities. There are 43 raisers with 9.62% and 44 farmers with 9.84% respondents agree the bases of selecting boar are age and eating ability, respectively. Likewise, 48 sow raisers with 10.74% chose the bases characteristics in selecting sow are color and conformation of body and size of sow body, 49 raisers with 10.96% of farmers chose the eating ability which effected to parenting abilities. There are 47 raisers with 10.51% of respondents agree that age and numbers of nipples are bases characteristics of selecting sows. Table 7. Physical bases in selecting breeder stocks Bases Frequency Percentage (%) Boars Size of the body 45 21.63 Age 43 20.67 Color and Conformation of the body 45 21.63 Abilities to eat 44 21.15 Big Testicle 31 14.90 Total 208 100.00 Sows Size of the body 48 20.08 Age 47 19.67 Color and Conformation of the body 48 20.08 Abilities to eat 49 20.50 Number of nipples 47 19.67 Total 239 100.00 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên Nguyễn Hưng Quang và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 107(07): 37 - 43 41 Heat Detection: The most popular signs detected by the raisers are swelling of the vulva and mucus discharge (26.04% each). There are 45 farmers with 23.44% recognized the sows are shouting/ roaring and 47 raisers with 24.48% of respondents saw the sows are active/ perceptive. Breeds of Pigs Being Raised: There are only 3 (6.00%) respondents who are raising Co pig only. Seventeen (34.00%) are raising Co pig and exotic pig while there are 15 farmers (30%) are rasing Co pig and pure breeds or Co pig and native breeds, respectively. Table 8. Pig breeds the respondents are raising Breed Frequency Percentage Co pig + Exotic 17 34.00 Co pig + Pure breeds 15 30.00 Co pig + Native breeds 15 30.00 Co pig only 3 6.00 Total 50 100.00 Breeds and Sources of Breeder Boars: There are 28 raisers with 56.00% used Co pig for boar breeder. There are 5 raiser with 10.00% and 17 farmers with 34.00% choose purebreds and any native breeds for breeder, respectively. Weaning Age: There are 31 raisers with 62.00% respondents let the Co piglets have weaning from 28 to 35 day old, besides, there are 18 raisers with 36% of interviewee wean the Co piglets from 36 to 45 day old. There is only 1 farmer wean the Co piglets with natural weaning. Table 9. Age of weaning in Co piglets Age Frequency Percentage 28- 35 days 31 62.00 36- 45 days 18 36.00 Other (natural weaning) 1 2.00 Total 50 100.00 Type of Feedstuffs given to Co Pig: There are 25 raisers with 50.00% respondents give commercial and home mixed feeds to Co pig; 19 raisers with 38.00% of respondents give home mixed feed using farm by- product and there are 6 raisers with 12.00% give Co pig commercial feed. There are 4 raisers with 1.89% of respondents used soybean and brewer spent grain for mixing feed. 45 raisers with 21.23% and 27 raisers with 22.17% of respondents used banana stern and sweet potato vines for mixing feed. Besides, there are 23 raisers with 10.85%, 25 raisers with 11.19% and 26 raisers with 12.26% of respondents used water lily, wild taro and water morning glory (kangkong) for mixing feeds, respectively. Provision of Housing: The data shows the distribution or respondents as to the provision of housing to the Co pig; total 47 raisers with 94.00% of respondents provided house for Co pig; likewise, there are 39 raisers with 82.98% of respondents used temporary house for Co pig. There are 3 raisers with 6.00% of respondents do not provide house for Co pig and there are 8 raisers with 17.02% of farmers used permanent house for Co pig. Common and Seasonality of Diseases Affecting Co Pigs: The data shows the diseases affecting the Co pigs of Forty-eight (33.10%) of respondent indicate that Pasteurellosis is one of the diseases that affect the Co pigs. This disease could be controlled by vaccination or treatment with antibiotics. In addition, the table also shows that 49 raisers with 33.79% and 48 farmers with 33.10% of respondents answers foot and mount disease and Salmonellosis or diarrhea are diseases affecting to Co pig. These diseases could be controlled with vaccination and antibiotic treatments. Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên Nguyễn Hưng Quang và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 107(07): 37 - 43 42 Table 10. Vaccination practices Name of vaccine Diseases Schedule Animal Vaccinated Frequency Percentage Pasteurellosis Vaccine Pasteurellosis >= 20 days old Any age of pigs 34 47.22 Diarrhea (Salmonella) Vaccine Salmonellosis >= 20 days old / 6 months Piglets 21 29.17 Foot and Mount Diseases Vaccine Foot and Mount Diseases >= 15 days old / 6 months Any age of pigs 17 23.61 Total 72 100.00 There are 45 raisers with 45.00% and 42 farmers with 42.00% of respondents confirmed that Co pig easy to get diseases in spring and winter, respectively. The winter starts from October to January; the weather is dry and cold in the winter so the Co pig is easy to get sick. The spring starts from February to April; the weather is even warmer than in winter but it is usually wet so the diseases could affect to Co pig, foot and mount diseases, especially. Further, there are 28 farmers with 28.00% and 30 raisers with 30.00% of respondents agreed that the diseases affected to Co pig in autumn and summer, respectively. Vaccination Schedule Practiced by the Co Pig Raisers: There are 34 raisers with 47.22% of respondents used Pasteurellosis Vaccine for Co pig when Co pig enough or bigger than 20 days old, repeat every 6 month; 21 raisers with 29.17% of respondents used Diarrhea Anti Salmonella Vaccine for Co piglets when Co pig enough or bigger than 20 days old, repeat every 6 month. Besides, there are 17 raisers with 23.16% of respondents used Anti Foot and Mount Diseases Vaccine for Co pig when Co pig enough or bigger than 15 days old, repeat every 6 month. CONCLUSIONS This investigation was done and shown that the performance characteristic of Co pig production in the area is low, due to its small body. Lack of purebreds, inadequate knowledge is also the most pressing problem and the most problems of Co pig raisers are facing are lack of capital, technology, pig breed and trading methods. High prices along with the increasing demand of the market have made Co pig raising became a attractive source of income for farmers but there are still many difficulties in breeding and development especially in the smallholders. The reasons for keeping Co pigs raising are consistent with the smallholders capability like small capital investment is needed, high adapted and resistant to deseases, easy to raise and its command high price. Besides, Co pigs are important in spiritual, social and cultural life of farmers. The Co pigs are used for festivals, ceremonies and holidays. REFERENCES [1]. Duyet, H. N., Son, N. D., An, N. V. and Thuan, T. T. 2003. Effect of high dietary levels of sweet potato leaves on the reproductive performance of pure and crossbred Mong Cai sows. Livestock Research for Rural Development No. 15 (6). September, 8, 2003. [2]. Hai, L. T. and Pryor, W. J. 1996. Social features and the development of swine production in Vietnam. In: Exploring approaches to research in the animal sciences in Vietnam. A workshop held in the city of Hue, Vietnam, 31 July - 3 August, 1995. ACIAR Proceedings No. 68; pp. 186-189. [3]. Hot, V. T. 1982. Features of outer appearance and performance of pig breeds in the Central Highlands, Agricultural technique and science magazine 13: 124 – 126. [4]. Le Thi Thanh Huyen. Impact of the use of exotic compared to local pig breeds on socio-economic Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên Nguyễn Hưng Quang và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 107(07): 37 - 43 43 development and biodiversity in Vietnam. VERLAG GRAUER, Beuren, Stuttgart, 2005. [5]. Ly, L. V., Giao, H. K., Sanh, M. V. Su, V. V. and L. M. Sat. 1999. Meo pig. The local domestic animal genetic resources and their conservation in Vietnam. Agricultural Publishing House - Hanoi. [6]. Singh, D. N., Mc Phee, C. P. and Kopinski, J. S. 1996. Helping to improve pig production in Vietnam. Exploring approaches to research in the animal sciences in Vietnam. A workshop held in the city of Hue. 31 July - 3 August, 1995pp. 176-181. [7]. Tuyen, N.Q. 2010. Khả năng sinh sản, chất lượng thịt của lợn của lợn Cỏ nuôi tại một số tỉnh miền núi phía Bắc.( Reproduction ability and meat quality of Co swine in high land in the North of Vietnam). Nguyen Quang Tuyen- Nguyen Manh Cuong, Livestock Journal No. 4-2010. in Vietnamese. TÓM TẮT ĐÁNH GIÁ THỰC TRẠNG CHĂN NUÔI, KHẢ NĂNG SẢN XUẤT VÀ QUẢN LÝ GIỐNG LỢN CỎ TẠI NGHỆ AN, VIỆT NAM Nguyễn Hưng Quang1*, Bùi Ngọc Sơn2, R.C Agatep2 1Trường Đại học Nông Lâm - ĐH Thái Nguyên; 2 Trường Đại học Tổng hợp quốc gia Laguna, Siniloan, Philippin Nghiên cứu được tiến hành nhằm đánh giá thực trạng chăn nuôi giống lợn Cỏ tại tỉnh Nghệ An, Việt Nam về một số đặc điểm như số lượng, phân bố, cấu trúc đàn lợn... Nghiên cứu được tiến hành từ tháng 8/2011 đến tháng 1/2012. Dựa trên kết quả đánh giá cho thấy giống lợn Cỏ là giống lợn còn lại khá ít. Hiện nay, tại khu vực này có khoảng dưới 500 con. Hầu hết giống lợn này được người dân nuôi tại các nông hộ nhỏ với đầu tư thấp cho chăn nuôi. Đồng thời những hộ chăn nuôi này cũng còn thiếu các kiến thức, kỹ thuật chăn nuôi nên không thể mở rộng được quy mô cũng như chăn nuôi chưa có hiệu quả cao. Giống lợn Cỏ có khả năng sản xuất không cao tuy nhiên nó có khả năng thích ứng và chống chịu bênh tật tốt. Chính vì vậy, chúng ta cần có các chính sách, biện pháp tốt để có thể bảo tồn và phát triển nguồn gen quý hiếm này như đầu tư kỹ thuật chọn giống, dinh dưỡng và quản lý dịch bệnh. Từ khóa: Lợn Cỏ, Nghệ An, Việt Nam, Sinh trưởng, Sinh sản Ngày nhận bài: 04/6/2013; Ngày phản biện:14/6/2013; Ngày duyệt đăng: 10/9/2013 Phản biện khoa học: TS. Mai Anh Khoa – Đại học Thái Nguyên * Tel: 0985 588 164 Số hóa bởi Trung tâm Học liệu – Đại học Thái Nguyên

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