Production testing research and beverage from tapioca

Due to the diffi cult conditions should study topics not identifi ed the transformation of active components in biological materials tapioca cord as well as their effects on the health of people using the product. However, the application of the results of the research will contribute to enrich the material goods from you a long time received little attention. Initially created database important for further research in processing technology in order to preserve and promote the characteristics of cassava fl our to better serve consumer needs.

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Tạp chí Khoa học - Công nghệ Thủy sản Số 2/2014 8 • TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC NHA TRANG THOÂNG BAÙO KHOA HOÏC PRODUCTION TESTING RESEARCH AND BEVERAGE FROM TAPIOCA NGHIÊN CỨU SẢN XUẤT THỬ NGHIỆM NƯỚC GIẢI KHÁT TỪ BỘT SẮN DÂY Vũ Duy Đô1 Ngày nhận bài: 08/3/2014; Ngày phản biện thông qua: 11/3/2014; Ngày duyệt đăng: 02/6/2014 ABSTRACT To build manufacturing process technologies beverage from cassava fl our should choose materials, identify technical parameters of appropriate technology. We came up with the idea to create beverage products with a gelatinized cassava suspended in sugar. Through a lot of testing, Dr. Vu Duy Do the same group of student of food technology Nha Trang University has identifi ed the stages of the production process with the main technical parameters: provide gelatinized tapioca (collagen) at 650C to 700C, 20% powder ratio; Glue Kudzu is in the air freezing temperatures average -200C for 4 hours; After freezing, glue cassava chopped 2 - 3 mm, the box with the 20% rate, the aqueous sugarglucose levels by 10%... The product is pasteurized at 1000C for 60 minutes; After pasteurization, the product is cooled, make Store at room temperature condition in 3 months and periodically evaluate the quality. Results of sample product quality standards are set. Keywords: Kudzu TÓM TẮT Để xây dựng qui trình công nghệ sản xuất nước giải khát từ bột sắn dây cần lựa chọn nguyên liệu, xác định các thông số kỹ thuật công nghệ thích hợp. Chúng tôi đã đưa ra ý tưởng tạo sản phẩm nước giải khát có thành phần sắn dây hồ hóa lơ lửng trong dịch đường. Qua rất nhiều thử nghiệm, Tiến sĩ Vũ Duy Đô cùng nhóm sinh viên ngành Công nghệ thực phẩm, Trường Đại học Nha Trang đã xác định được các công đoạn của qui trình sản xuất với các thông số kỹ thuật chính: Bột sắn dây đem hồ hóa (tạo keo) ở 650C đến 700C, tỷ lệ bột 20%; Keo sắn dây được làm đông trong không khí có nhiệt độ trung bình -200C trong 4 giờ; Sau làm đông, keo sắn được cắt nhỏ 2 - 3 mm, vào hộp với tỷ lệ cái 20%, cùng dung dịch nước đường có nồng độ đường 10%. Sản phẩm được thanh trùng ở 1000C trong thời gian 60 phút; Sau thanh trùng, sản phẩm được làm nguội, bảo quản ở điều kiện thường trong 3 tháng và định kỳ đánh giá chất lượng. Kết quả các mẫu sản phẩm đều đạt tiêu chuẩn chất lượng đã đề ra. Từ khóa: sắn dây 1 TS. Vũ Duy Đô: Khoa Công nghệ thực phẩm - Trường Đại học Nha Trang I. BACKGROUND Kudzu is a vine plant that roots grow into tubers. In Vietnam, cassava is grown quite popular in many different regions. Kudzu root is eaten fresh and made into powder. Cassava fl our usually draw water, drinks with added sugars or cooked, baking. In the East, Kudzu has long had an important place in Ayurvedic medicine, especially in China and Japan. Kudzu (medicine called a sand base) spicy sweetness, calculated average, there detoxifi cation effects, waste heat. It is used to treat fever, heat in the mouth, headache fever, thirst, go bloody dysentery. Kudzu tea can be used as chronic headaches, stiff shoulders, colitis, sinusitis, respiratory diseases, drunk, allergic itching, rashes types of skin allergies, asthma, pneumonia, and pimples. Kudzu states have a little bitter sweet, cool features, effects of alcohol detoxifi cation and treatment of fever, anorexia, vomiting of sour, drew blood... Chemical composition of Kudzu: Kudzu root in that 12 - 15% starch (fresh root) to 40% (dry bulb), saponosid es substances, fl avonoids, particularly in fl avonoids of puerarin Kudzu has is used as a treatment for cardiovascular disease. Tạp chí Khoa học - Công nghệ Thủy sản Số 2/2014 TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC NHA TRANG • 9 Flavonoids in Kudzu activity enhancing activity and circulatory digestive system. thus have the effect of preventing the contraction of the intestinal cells, help blood fl ow better and reduce intestinal spasms, intestinal torsion. People often use cassava as a common beverage in the summer. Drugs cassava is prepared in two forms: dry powder form and the original form. Kudzu root powder can also be used to brew tea or cake. The Japanese have been mixing cassava fl our with soy fl our fabricated food cake dessert Kuzumochi is very cool and popular supplements. In general, the use of cassava is limited. To increase usability cassava market, the research needed to create useful products, nutritious, appetizing consumers from cassava. So we included Dr. Vu Duy Do the same group of students of food technology Nha Trang University chose research subjects tested produced beverage from cassava fl our. Goal of this project is to create instant drink canned products, easy maintenance, use, characteristic fl avor of manioc ensure hygiene standards, food safety. Below is the object and methods Research topics and results. II. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Ingredients use in the study of cassava fl our production facilities Tuyet Quang - number 49 O Cho Dua, Hanoi. Meal packaging materials from moisture, white light, characteristic smell, no mold, lumps, with a term of 2 years maintenance. Experimental production processes were carried out according to the diagram in fi gure 1. Figure 1. Process Mapping experiments beverage produced from cassava fl our In the diagram above, cassava fl our was mixed with water, there are stir to dissolve powder. Services fl our is cooked into glue and allow to cool. During the cooking process to stir constantly, when the colloid becomes transparent, then fi nish cooking. After cooking, the colloid was poured into rectangular molds with 2 cm thick layer of glue. Kudzu When cold glue, glue molds are put into the freezer air temperature wind -200C and air velocity 2 m/s to the east. Freezing process helps to diffuse the water in the glue, creating porosity and properties needed for the product. After freezing, thawing the frozen glue in natural air and then cut into small pieces with an average size of 3 - 5 mm. Glue the box cassava is then poured boiling sugar water, conducted seamer, pasteurized products. The main technical parameters of the manufacturing process should be studied include: the ratio tapioca draw water, cooking temperature for gelatinization, Kudzu collagen, glue freeze- time, ratio of sugar and fl our in syrup, ratio of solid/liquid when the box and time pasteurizing products. Diagram experiments to determine the rate tapioca draw water when there’s similar technological process in fi gure 1. In particular, the model will have tapioca rate than changes in water about 15 - 30 g/ml, jump 5 g/100 ml; Choose the optimal ratio of sample powder product that scores the highest sense, the unspecifi ed parameters are expected: Cooking Temperature is 700C, coagulation time is 4 hours, the rate of sugar and fl our in syrup respectively 10% and 5%, the solid/liquid is 20 g/100 ml, heat pasteurization holding time is 20 minutes. Sensory quality of the product was assessed by the method of scoring board. Table base product grading is based on the objective of the project is to create instant drink canned products, easy maintenance, use, characteristic fl avor of cassava. To concretize goals, we’ve done a lot of testing. From there, select the product mixture is somewhat the glue debris Kudzu is suspended while the liquid water path. Grading Basis products listed on table 1. Experiments to determine the cooking temperature gelatinized cassava, glue coagulation time, the proportion of sugar and fl our in syrup respectively 10% and 5%, the solid/liquid entering the box, real-time pasteurization is done similar experiments to determine the rate at air water tapioca. In particular, changes in cooking temperature of about 60 - 750C, 50C jump, Freezing time in about 2 - 5h, 1h jump; sugar in the ratio about of 8 - 14g Water Cassava fl our, sugar Draw water, cook cook Let cool, freeze Thawed,chopped In the box, seaming Pasteurizing Kudzu Product Tạp chí Khoa học - Công nghệ Thủy sản Số 2/2014 10 • TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC NHA TRANG syrup/100 ml, 2g/100 ml jump; powder in the ratio of about 3 - 6g syrup/100 ml, 1g/100 ml jump, the solid/liquid entering the box about 15 - 30 g/100 ml, 5g/100 ml jump; sterilizing hold period of approximately 10 - 40 minutes, 10 minutes jump. These specifi cations are expected in the following experiments will in turn be replaced by the selected value from the previous experiments. Particularly cooking temperature fl uctuations ± 20C, the selected parameters and the expected average value of the fl uctuating temperatures. Pasteurization temperature was chosen as 1000C, raising and lowering time pasteurization temperature was chosen as 12 minutes. Table 1. Product grading basis Target Coeffi cientimportant Point Facility assessment Colours 1.0 5 Featured products in 4 Products have little color in white 3 More mixed products in white 2 Products are white 1 Products with opaque white 0 Products with strange colors Smell 0.8 5 Distinct aroma of cassava, which saved the long smell, no fl avor 4 Distinct aroma of manioc short length smell, no fl avor 3 The smell of tapioca d ay no more, no weird smells 2 Kudzu very mild aroma 1 No smell Kudzu 0 There is the smell of damaged product, smells strange Taste 1.0 5 The characteristic cool sweet harmony between the 2 parts water 4 Moderate sweetness but little harmony between the 2 parts water 3 The last but not sweet harmony between the 2 parts water 2 Sweetness too pale or too 1 Appearing at v i is diffi cult to detect 0 There is an obvious level Status 1.2 5 The suspended part, moderately soft, not sticky, liquid ratio harmony 4 The little nervous, soft, not sticky, liquid part harmony 3 The more nervous, a little hard, not sticky, less liquid part harmony 2 The deposition very much, too hard or soft, sticky little 1 The ratio is not in harmony, the so-precipitates 0 Too specifi c or too loose, the ending completely settled Moisture content of raw materials is determined by drying method to constant mass, and ash content was determined by combustion method. Each experiment was performed 3 times. Experimental results are average values of the experimental time. Experimental data is processed by MS Excel software. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. Results determine moisture and ash content of the starting material Using the method of drying to constant weight and burn method we have identifi ed moisture and ash content of raw cassava fl our. The results are the average moisture content of the material is 4,1% and an average ash content of 5,4%. Tạp chí Khoa học - Công nghệ Thủy sản Số 2/2014 TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC NHA TRANG • 11 2. Determine the ratio of air water tapioca Experimental results determine the rate of tapioca water when air is presented in fi gure 2. The experience shows tapioca rate when water affect air quality products. When 15 g/100 ml powder ratio, the portion of the product is too soft, easily crushed. When dough moderate rate (20 g/100 ml), part of the software product, not crushed. In the powder sample rate increases, the portion of the product is hard, and specialty cooking dough is sticky, easy to burn, do organoleptic point decline. From the experimental results, choose tapioca rate appropriate to the country’s peace 20 g/100 ml 3. Determine the cooking temperature Experimental results determine the cooking temperature is shown in fi gure 3. Experiments show that when cooked at a temperature of 600C and 650C products is not part gelatinized. When heated to 700C products are completely gelatinized, color, odor, taste characteristics, sensory highest point. When cooking temperature increase to 750C, the product was dark, appeared odors and tastes. This is due to the Maillard reaction causes discoloration and odor. Especially high temperature as much starch stick to the bottom of the pot and cook up more susceptible to change. So, choose the appropriate cooking temperature of 700C. 4. Determine clotting time The purpose of coagulation is to create the diffusion of water, reduce the amount of glue to separate them suspended in the sugar solution. Therefore, freezing conditions (described in Section II) is to make sure freezing slow speed help for easy diffusion of water. Experimental results in fi gure 4 show that the clotting time is 2 pm or 3 pm, the high point of no senses. It is due to water ratio in colloidal crystalline low diffusion rate of water so not much. I have many pieces of glue is deposited in the product. In form 4 h and 5 h coagulation rate of colloidal crystalline water close to the highest levels and nearly equal temperature should have been deposited in the little piece of adhesive products. Thus, the high point of their senses and not signifi cantly different. Therefore, choose the appropriate clotting time is 4 hours. Figure 4. Infl uence of freeze – time to view the product’s organoleptic Figure 2. Effect of a powder ratio to the point of product organoleptic Figure 5. Effect of the ratio of water to the point of product organoleptic Figure 3. Effect of cooking temperature to the point of product organoleptic Tạp chí Khoa học - Công nghệ Thủy sản Số 2/2014 12 • TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC NHA TRANG Figure 8. Effect of heat-trapping time to view the product’s organoleptic 7. Determination of thermal pasteurization hold time The test samples after pasteurization insulated 10 days at room temperature and sensory evaluation and quality sampling checks bring microorganisms. Results organoleptic quality assessment in Figure 8 shows the temperature pasteurization holding time 30 minutes, organoleptic point of the product to achieve the highest value, in samples with different time points are lower. It is due time to keep heat affects the ability to kill microorganisms and cooked products. When the hold time is 10 or 20 minute fl owers minute, after 10 days have phenomenal products damaged due to microbial activity. Three samples with 30 minute hold period was brought test microorganisms. Results of microbiological criteria are checked by QCVN 6 -2:2010/BYT are satisfactory. Therefore select the appropriate hold period is 30 minutes. 8. A proposal for beverage production from cassava fl our From the results of our research on the proposed manufacturing process beverage from cassava fl our according to the following diagram: Kudzu → Draw water → Cook → Let cook, freeze Product ← Pasteurizing ← In the box, seaming ← Chopped ← In this process diagrams tapioca country at peace with 20g/100ml rate is cooked at a temperature of 70oC, while the colloid becomes transparent, then fi nish cooking. After cooking, the colloid was poured into rectangular 5. Determine the ratio of solid/ liquid when the box Experimental results in fi gure 5 shows the ratio of solid/liquid is 20 g/100 ml sensory point of the product reaches the highest value, at a rate of one sample/other countries have lower scores. That is due to the harmony of the state, only the taste of the best mixed in a ratio of solid/liquid determined. Consequently, the ratio selected /20 g/100 ml water is appropriate. 6. Determine the sugar ratio and the powder ratio of syrup Experimental results in fi gure 6 and 7 shows the percentage of sugar in syrup rate is 10 g/100 ml and tapioca syrup is added to 5 g/100 ml sensory point of the product reaches the highest value, in samples with other ratios are lower point. It was created by sugar sweet, tapioca create comparable status, reduces sedimentation in part the product. Harmonization of state and only the best of products at a rate determined sugar and fl our. From this result, chosen the ratio of sugar and the rate of appropriate tapioca syrup respectively in 10 g/100 ml and 5 g/100 ml. Figure 6. Effect of ratio of sugar syrup to the point of product organoleptic Figure 7. Effect of ratio of powder syrup to the point of product organoleptic Tạp chí Khoa học - Công nghệ Thủy sản Số 2/2014 TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC NHA TRANG • 13 molds with 2 cm thick layer of glue. When Kudzu cold glue, glue molds are put into the freezer air temperature wind -200C and air velocity of 2 m/s to the east. Clotting time is 4 hours. After freezing, thawing the frozen glue in natural air and then cut into small pieces with an average size of 3 - 5 mm. Glue cassava is then poured into the box was boiling syrup, sugar and fl our ratio 10 g/100 ml and 5g/100 ml respectively, the rate of water is 20g/100 ml. Conduct seamer, pasteurized formula: After the construction process, we have conducted trial production, the product obtained is fairly good quality with 18.5 points organoleptic, microbiological criteria are checked by QCVN 6-2:2010/BYT are satisfactory. IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The theme has been proposed manufacturing process beverage from cassava fl our with the specifi cations and guidelines suffi cient to create products that meet the requirements set objectives. The specifi c parameters are: - The rate of cassava fl our/water 20 g/100 ml; - Cooking temperature 700C; - Freezing temperature -200C, air velocity 2 m/s, clotting time is 4 hours; - The rate of sugar in syrup is 10g/100 ml, the rate of powder in syrup is 5 g/100 ml; - The rate of solid/liquid is 20 g/100 ml; - Formula pasteurized: Due to the diffi cult conditions should study topics not identifi ed the transformation of active components in biological materials tapioca cord as well as their effects on the health of people using the product. However, the application of the results of the research will contribute to enrich the material goods from you a long time received little attention. Initially created database important for further research in processing technology in order to preserve and promote the characteristics of cassava fl our to better serve consumer needs. REFERENCES 1. Phan Quoc Kinh, Le Minh Chau, 2003. Research, extracts and refi ning isofl avonoid in Kudzu roof Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Journal of Science and Technology. Episode 41, no 2: 10-15. 2. Do Thi Hoa Vien, 2006. Research in vivo effects of estrogen hormone type Isofl avones extracted from Kudzu - Pueraria thomsorii Benth. Journal of Science and Technology. Episode 44, no 2/2006. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. # Medicine 8. 9.

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