Performance of three breeds of broiler chicken fed with different levels of metabolizable energy - Nguyen Duc Truong

Thí nghiệm được tiến hành bố trí nhân tố theo kiểu 3x3 (giống và các mức năng lượng trao đổi khác nhau trong khẩu phần) trong một khối ngẫu nhiên đầy đủ nhằm đánh giá khả năng sản xuất của ba giống gà broiler. Các giống gà thịt cụ thể là: Ross, Cobb và CP 707. Các mức năng lượng bao gồm 3 mức khác nhau ở các giai đoạn gà thí nghiệm. Các chỉ tiêu khảo sát, đánh giá bao gồm: tỷ lệ sống, khối lượng cơ thể; tiêu thụ thức ăn; tiêu tốn thức ăn/kg tăng khối lượng; chỉ số sản xuất; tỷ lệ thịt xẻ; chất lượng thịt và sơ bộ hạch toán hiệu quả kinh tế. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy không có sai khác thống kê về ảnh hưởng của các mức năng lượng trao đổi trên các giống gà được sử dụng trong nghiên cứu. Tuy nhiên, có sự sai khác có ý nghĩa thống kê về các chỉ tiêu nghiên cứu ở giai đoạn cuối cùng trên các giống gà như các chỉ tiêu về tổng tiêu thụ thức ăn, tiêu tốn thức ăn, hiệu quả kinh tế, sản lượng thịt ngực, mỡ bụng, mỡ cơ ngực và khoáng cơ ngực. Không có sự khác biệt có ý nghĩa về mức năng lượng trao đổi ảnh hưởng tới các biến khác trong nghiên cứu này. Có sự sai khác giữa các giống gà thí nghiệm về mức năng lượng trao đổi cao nhất thì cho kết quả về khối lượng tích lũy giai đoạn cuối cũng như tổng tiêu thụ thức ăn tương tự như gà được nuôi với mức năng lượng 1. Tuy nhiên, tiêu tốn thức ăn/kg tăng khối lượng tốt nhất đối với các giống là ở mức năng lượng trao đổi thứ 3. Mức năng lượng trao đổi này cũng cho chỉ số sản xuất, tỷ lệ cơ ngực, tỷ lệ mỡ bụng ở gà là cao nhất. Đồng thời tổng tiêu thụ thức ăn của giống gà Cobb và CP 707 là tương đương và cao hơn so với giống gà Ross. Tuy nhiên, xét về góc độ sơ bộ hạch toán hiệu quả kinh tế thì kết quả ở giống gà CP 707 là cao nhất. Do, đây là giống gà được khuyến nghị sẽ đem lại hiệu quả hơn trong chăn nuôi

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Nguyễn Đức Trường và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 123(09): 161 - 166 161 PERFORMANCE OF THREE BREEDS OF BROILER CHICKEN FED WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF METABOLIZABLE ENERGY Nguyen Duc Truong1, Tu Trung Kien2*, Nguyen Hung Quang2 1 Laguna State Polytechnic University, Siniloan, Laguna 2College of Agriculture and Forestry - TNU SUMMARY Employing a 3x3 factorial experimental in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), the study attempted to find answers to the specific questions presented in this study. The factors that were used in this study were the breed of broiler and level of metabolizable energy. The broiler breed has 3 levels, namely: Ross, Cobb and CP 707, while the metabolizable energy also has 3 levels as determined by various rate of discussion at different stages of the growing period. In comparing the production performance of the different breed as affected by three levels of metabolizable energy in the ration, the following parameters were used in this study: survival rate, body weight; feed consumption; feed conversion ratio; performances index; dressing percentage; quality of meat; and gross profit margin of production. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the levels of metabolizable energy in the breeds of chickens used in the study. However, significant level of metabolizable energy effects were observed on final bodyweight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, performances index, breast meat yield, abdominal fat yield, crude fat content of breast muscle and inorganic matter content of breast muscle. No significant levels of metabolizable energy effects were detected in the other variables in this study. Likewise, significant broiler breed effects were observed on the total feed consumption and on the gross profit margin of production. The birds fed with metabolizable energy level 3 gave the highest final bodyweight but with the highest feed consumption which is the same as that of the birds fed with metabolizable energy level 1. However, the best feed conversion ratio was given by the birds fed with mebolizable energy level 3. Metabolizable energy level 3 also effected the highest performance index and highest breast muscle yield and the highest abdominal fat and breast muscle crude fat contents. On the other way around, the Cobb and the CP 707 consumed equal and highest amount of feeds compared with the feed consumption of the Ross broiler strain. However, in terms of gross profit margin of production, the CP 707 gave the best performance. In view of the above – stated finding and conclusions, CP 707 strain is recommended for commercial broiler production purposes in order to maximize profit. Key words: Broiler chicken, Cobb, Ross 208, CP 707, Feed consumption, Body weight gain BACKGROUND* According to recently on statistics, chicken has appropriated 20 - 25% of total meat production in Viet Nam (Giao, 2006). Nowadays in Viet Nam, the raising of broiler chickens has developed in three modes: intensive, semi-intensive and range type (My, 1997). In order to meet the demand for poultry products, Viet Nam has imported different kinds of breed of chicken such as Hybro, Avian, BE88, ISA, AA, Ross 308, Lohmann, Cobb Hubbard and other breed from other countries. These breeds are high producing, fast growing and efficient feed * Tel: 0902119828 converters, producing good quality meat. They are adapted to the climate and are well- accepted by consumers. Raising poultry has been satisfying more and more the need of humans for eggs and meat (Cabel et al, 1991). With the development of the economy, and an improved standard of living, the demand for chicken meat also increasing (Singh and Pada, 1998); thus, investment in breeding and feeding technology is necessary to satisfy the raising of chickens. General Statistics of Viet Nam (2005) reported that the gross value of agriculture production in the country was estimated at 960 billions VND, 219.2 millions of animals, the poultry sub-sector accounted for 22 percent of the total agricultural Nguyễn Đức Trường và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 123(09): 161 - 166 162 production in 2005. However, poultry in Viet Nam increased from 124.5 million birds in 1992 to 254.3 million birds in 2002 but 70 percent of which are native chickens produced by local growers with little technology and investment. With this situation, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Viet Nam has promoted a poultry development program to increase broiler production using the latest technology and thus is striving to reduce native chicken production to 65 percent by 2010 (Giao, 2006). Therefore, scientists endeavor to research on technological advancement to help producers utilize local material resources in order to reduce price of feed but still meet the requirement for nutrition of livestock (Gous, 1989; Hill and Dansky, 1950; Hill and Dansky, 1954). Ration formulation that uses local materials for balanced nutrition is a good method that is easy to do, fast and efficient (Sell et al, 1985). This study aims to determine the performance of three breeds of broiler treated with three levels of metabolizable energy (ME) in the ration. RESEACH SUBJECT AND METHODS Research Design: Particularly, a 3x3 factorial experiment laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was adopted in this study. Two-factor experiment is an experiment in which two factors vary while all other factors will be kept constant. Randomized Complete Block Design is an experimental design where in the allocation of treatments is done by randomizing the treatments completely over the experimental units in the block. It is commonly used when the experimental area is assumed to be heterogeneous to minimize experimental conditions (Gomez and Gomez, 1984). Subjects of the Study: The first subject of this study were the three breeds: CP 707, Cobb; Ross 208. The second subjects were three levels of ME in the ration. The levels of ME used were 2700, 2800, 2900 kcal ME/kg (first stage); 2800, 2900, 3050 kcal ME/kg (second stage) and 2900, 3000, 3150 kcal ME/kg (third stage). Determination of the Sample: A total of one thousand eight hundred day old chicks at six hundred chicks for each breeds/ genetic compositions, or fifty chicks per each unit were used as experimental birds in this study. The fifty (50) birds allocated for each experimental unit were the subjects in the determination of the bodyweight, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Statistical Treatment of Data: The gathered data were statistically treated according to RCBD. The following statistical treatments were employed. All statistical tests were done at 5% level of significance. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Body Weight of the Chickens: Analysis of variance showed that there is no significant interaction between the strains of the chicken and the levels of metabolizable energy in the rations in terms of the average final bodyweights (p = 0.1259). However, there was a significant difference on the effects of the levels of metabolizable energy on the average final bodyweights of the chickens, irrespective of their strains (p = 0.0001). There was no significant strain effect (p= 0.42). Table 1. Average final body weight of the chicken, in grams Breed Metabolizable energy levels Breed Mean 1 (E1) 2 (E2) 3 (E3) Ross (B1) 2049.50 2130.45 2206.50 2128.82 Cobb (B2) 2056.32 2113.97 2218.75 2129.68 CP 707 (B3) 2045.40 2125.99 2244.16 2138.52 ME Mean 2050.407c 2123.47b 2223.14a * In a row, means with different letters are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT. B1, B2, B3: Blocks; E1, E2, E3: The levels of ME in ration. Nguyễn Đức Trường và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 123(09): 161 - 166 163 Feed Consumption of the Chickens: The Treatment Combination 6 (B2 E3) has the highest feed consumption with a mean of 4420.55 grams. This was followed by the average feed consumption of the birds in Treatment Combinations 9, 3, 4, 8, 7, 5, and 2 with an average of 4378.32, 4352.41, 4339.99, 4336.34, 4335.32, 4313.12, and 4127.63 grams, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there is no significant strain by metabolizable energy (ME) level interaction effect having a p-value of 0.2595. The ANOVA result, however, reveals that there is a significant difference among the strain effect means and also among the metabolizable energy (ME) level means. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) of the Chickens: The average feed conversion ratios (FCR) of the experimental birds show that the birds in the Treatment Combinations 6 and 9 gave the best performance by having an average of 1.98. This was followed by the birds in Treatment Combination 3 with an average FCR of 1.99. Treatment Combinations 2 (B1E1), 5, and 8 (B3E2) gave an average FCR of 2.06 each while Treatment Combination 4 gave an average FCR of 2.11. The worst average FCR of 2.12 was obtained from Treatment Combinations 1 and 7. Analysis of variance showed that there is no significant interaction between the strains of the chicken and the levels of metabolizable energy in the rations in terms of the feed conversion ratio (p = 0.9343). However, there was a significant difference in the effects of the levels of metabolizable energy on the FCR of the chickens, irrespective of their strains (p = 0.0001). There was no significant strain effect (p= 0.9129 ). Table 2. Average total feed consumption of chickens, in grams Breed Metabolizable energy levels Breed Mean 1 (E1) 2 (E2) 3 (E3) Ross (B1) 4312.03 4127.63 4352.41 4264.02b Cobb (B2) 4339.99 4313.12 4420.55 4357.88a CP 707 (B3) 4335.32 4336.36 4378.32 4350.00a ME Mean 4329.113a 4259.037b 4383.76a *In a column, means with different letters are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT. *In a row, means with different letters are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT. Table 3. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR) of chickens Breed Metabolizable energy levels Breed Mean 1 (E1) 2 (E2) 3 (E3) Ross (B1) 2.12 2.06 1.99 2.06 Cobb (B2) 2.11 2.06 1.98 2.05 CP 707 (B3) 2.12 2.06 1.98 2.05 ME Mean 2.12a 2.06b 1.98c *In a row, means with different letters are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT Survival rate: Analysis of variance showed that there is no significant interaction between the strains of the chicken and the levels of metabolizable energy in the rations in terms of the survive rate (p = 0.9941). No mortality was observed from 28 to 42 days of age. This result also shows that the raising process is suitable for broiler to produce meat. Table 4. Survival rate of the chickens, in percent Breed Metabolizable energy levels Breed Mean 1 (E1) 2 (E2) 3 (E3) Ross (B1) 95.0 95.0 96.0 95.33 Cobb (B2) 94.5 95.5 95.0 95.00 CP 707 (B3) 94.5 95.5 96.0 95.33 ME Mean 94.67 95.33 95.67 Nguyễn Đức Trường và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 123(09): 161 - 166 164 Performance Index (PI): The average performance indices (PI) of the experimental birds show that the birds in Treatment Combination 9 (B3E3) gave the best performance by having an average of 310.94. This was followed by the birds in Treatment Combinations 6 (B2E3) and 3 (B1E3) with a PI of 306.38 and 303.89, respectively. Treatment Combinations 8 (B3E2), 2 (B1E2), 5(B2E2), 1(B1E1), 7 (B3E1) gave an average PI of 279.38, 279.33, 279.06, 263.21 and 261.03, respectively. The worst PI of 227.49 was obtained from Treatment Combination 4 (B2E1). There is no significant interaction between the strains of the chicken and the levels of metabolizable energy in the rations in terms of their effects on the PI (p = 0.6504). However, there was a significant difference in the effects of the levels of metabolizable energy on the PI of the chickens, irrespective of their breed (p = 0.0001). There was no significant strain effect (p= 0.8221). Table 5. Performance Index of the Chickens Breed Metabolizable energy Levels Breed mean 1 (E1) 2 (E2) 3 (E3) Ross (B1) 263.21 279.33 303.89 282.14 Cobb (B2) 227.49 279.06 306.38 270.98 CP 707 (B3) 261.03 279.38 310.94 283.79 Treatment mean 250.58c 279.26b 307.07a *In a row, means with different letters are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT Dressing Percentage of the Chickens: The data shows that the birds in the Treatment Combination 3 gave the best performance by having an average of 77.1%. This was followed by the birds in Treatment Combinations 1, 4, and 7 with an average dressing percentage of 76.50% each. Treatment Combinations 9 (B3E3), 8 (B3E2), 2 (B1E2) and 6 (B2E3) gave an average dressing percentage of 76.30%, 75.61%, 75.60%, and 74.5%, respectively. The worst average dressing percentage 74.45% was obtained from Treatment Combination 5 (B2E2). Analysis of variance showed that there is no significant interaction between the breeds of the chicken and the levels of metabolizable energy (ME) in the rations in terms of the dressing percentage (p = 0.42). Likewise, there were no significant levels of metabolizable energy (ME) and chicken breeds effects on the dressing percentages of the experimental chickens having p-values of 0.34 and 0.41, respectively. Table 6. Dressing Percentage of the Chickens, in percent Breed Metabolizable energy levels Breed Mean 1 (E1) 2 (E2) 3 (E3) Ross (B1) 76.50 75.60 77.10 76.40 Cobb (B2) 76.50 74.45 74.50 75.15 CP 707 (B3) 76.50 75.61 76.30 76.14 ME Mean 76.50 75.22 75.97 Breast and Leg Muscle Yield of the Chickens (table 7): Analysis of variance showed that there is no significant interaction between the breeds of the chicken and the levels of metabolizable energy (ME) in the rations in terms of the breast and leg muscle yield (p = 1.00). There was a significant difference in the effects of the different levels of metabolizable energy (ME) on the breast muscle yields of the chickens, irrespective of their breeds (p = 0.0376). There was no significant strain effect (p= 0.9984). Chemical Analysis of Breast and Leg Muscles: Analysis of variance showed that there is no significant interaction between the breeds of the chicken and the levels of metabolizable energy (ME) in the rations in terms of the average dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and inorganic Nguyễn Đức Trường và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 123(09): 161 - 166 165 matter content of breast and leg muscle. There was no significant difference in the effects of the different levels of metabolizable energy (ME) on the dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and inorganic matter content of breast and leg muscle, irrespective of the chicken strains (p = 0.105). Likewise, there was no significant strain effect (p= 0.99) that was detected. Table 7. Breast Muscle Yield of the Chickens, in percent Breed Metabolizable energy levels Breed Mean 1 (E1) 2 (E2) 3 (E3) Ross (B1) 17.67 17.48 17.50 17.55 Cobb (B2) 16.95 17.73 17.82 17.50 CP 707 (B3) 17.56 17.31 17.61 17.49 ME Mean 17.39a 17.51b 17.64c *In a row, means with different letters are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT. Gross Profit Margin: The average gross profit margin of the experimental birds shows that the birds in the Treatment Combination 8 gave the highest gross profit margin with an average of 29.43%. This was followed by the birds in Treatment Combinations 9, 7, 6, 5, 3, and 1 with an average gross profit margin of 28.17, 27.73, 27.06, 26.87, 26.64, 25.85 and 25.38%, respectively. The lowest average gross profit margin 24.19% was obtained from Treatment Combination 2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there is no significant strain by metabolizable energy level interaction (p = 0.1057) effect. Likewise, the analysis also shows that the level of metabolizable energy has no significant effect (p = 0.5206 ) but the strain effect is significant (p = 0.0001) on the average gross profit margin. REFERENCES [1] Cabel.M. C, Waldroup.P.W. 1991. Effect of dietary protein by the broiler chickens, Poultry Science 70, p 1550 – 1558 [2] Giao Hoang Kim. 2006. The Direction Development Poultry in Viet Nam 2005-2010) [3] Gomez, K.A. and A.A. Gomez. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., N.Y., USA. [4] Gous. 1989. Advances in Nutrition and management of male and female broiler breeder. Recent advances in animal. Nutrition in Australia E.d. Farsiell UNE, p 250 – 252. [5] Hill. F. W and Dansky. L. M. 1950. Studies of the protein requirement of chicks and its relation to dietary energy level, Poultry Science 29, p 763 [6] Hill. F. W and Dansky. L. M. 1954. Studies of the energy requirement of chicks 3 the effect of dietary energy level on the rate and gross efficiency of egg production, Poultry Science 35, p 54 [7] My Nguyen Thi Thuy. 1997. Studying ability production of broiler chicken 49 days of AA, Avian, BE88 breeds raising in summer season in Thai Nguyen. Unpublished MSA Thesis, Post Graduate Faculty. TUAF [8] Sell.J. L, Hasick.R. J and Owings. 1985. Independent effect of dietary metabolizable energy and protein concentrations on performance and carcass characteristics, Poultry Science 64, p 1527 [9] Singh K. S and Pada. 1998. Poultry nutrition, Kalyani Publisher, New Delhi – Lubdhiana, p 13 – 16, 31. Nguyễn Đức Trường và Đtg Tạp chí KHOA HỌC & CÔNG NGHỆ 123(09): 161 - 166 166 TÓM TẮT ĐÁNH GIÁ KHẢ NĂNG SẢN XUẤT CỦA BA GIỐNG GÀ THỊT BROILER VỚI CÁC MỨC NĂNG LƯỢNG TRAO ĐỔI KHÁC NHAU Nguyễn Đức Trường1, Từ Trung Kiên2*, Nguyễn Hưng Quang2 1 Đại học tổng hợp Laguna 2Trường Đại học Nông Lâm – ĐH Thái Nguyên Thí nghiệm được tiến hành bố trí nhân tố theo kiểu 3x3 (giống và các mức năng lượng trao đổi khác nhau trong khẩu phần) trong một khối ngẫu nhiên đầy đủ nhằm đánh giá khả năng sản xuất của ba giống gà broiler. Các giống gà thịt cụ thể là: Ross, Cobb và CP 707. Các mức năng lượng bao gồm 3 mức khác nhau ở các giai đoạn gà thí nghiệm. Các chỉ tiêu khảo sát, đánh giá bao gồm: tỷ lệ sống, khối lượng cơ thể; tiêu thụ thức ăn; tiêu tốn thức ăn/kg tăng khối lượng; chỉ số sản xuất; tỷ lệ thịt xẻ; chất lượng thịt và sơ bộ hạch toán hiệu quả kinh tế. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy không có sai khác thống kê về ảnh hưởng của các mức năng lượng trao đổi trên các giống gà được sử dụng trong nghiên cứu. Tuy nhiên, có sự sai khác có ý nghĩa thống kê về các chỉ tiêu nghiên cứu ở giai đoạn cuối cùng trên các giống gà như các chỉ tiêu về tổng tiêu thụ thức ăn, tiêu tốn thức ăn, hiệu quả kinh tế, sản lượng thịt ngực, mỡ bụng, mỡ cơ ngực và khoáng cơ ngực. Không có sự khác biệt có ý nghĩa về mức năng lượng trao đổi ảnh hưởng tới các biến khác trong nghiên cứu này. Có sự sai khác giữa các giống gà thí nghiệm về mức năng lượng trao đổi cao nhất thì cho kết quả về khối lượng tích lũy giai đoạn cuối cũng như tổng tiêu thụ thức ăn tương tự như gà được nuôi với mức năng lượng 1. Tuy nhiên, tiêu tốn thức ăn/kg tăng khối lượng tốt nhất đối với các giống là ở mức năng lượng trao đổi thứ 3. Mức năng lượng trao đổi này cũng cho chỉ số sản xuất, tỷ lệ cơ ngực, tỷ lệ mỡ bụng ở gà là cao nhất. Đồng thời tổng tiêu thụ thức ăn của giống gà Cobb và CP 707 là tương đương và cao hơn so với giống gà Ross. Tuy nhiên, xét về góc độ sơ bộ hạch toán hiệu quả kinh tế thì kết quả ở giống gà CP 707 là cao nhất. Do, đây là giống gà được khuyến nghị sẽ đem lại hiệu quả hơn trong chăn nuôi. Từ khóa: Gà thịt broiler, Cobb, Ross 208, CP 707, Tiêu tốn thức ăn, tăng khối lượng Ngày nhận bài:23/7/2014; Ngày phản biện:12/8/2014; Ngày duyệt đăng: 20/8/2014 Phản biện khoa học: GS.TS. Từ Quang Hiển – Đại học Thái Nguyên * Tel: 0902119828

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