Bài giảng Systems Analysis and Design - Chapter 3: Project Management

Summary Project management fundamentals Project initiation Determining project feasibility Activity planning and control Project scheduling Managing systems analysis team members Problem definition Issues of the present system The objective for each issue The requirements that must be included in all proposed systems

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Project ManagementSystems Analysis and Design, 7eKendall & Kendall3Kendall & Kendall3-*Learning ObjectivesUnderstand how projects are initiated and selectedDefine a business problem and determine the feasibility of a proposed projectPlan a project by identifying activities and scheduling themUnderstand how an alternative approach called agile development balances objectives to manage the analysis and design processManage team members and analysis and design activities so the project objectives are met while the project remains on scheduleKendall & Kendall3-*Project Management FundamentalsProject initiationDetermining project feasibilityActivity planning and controlProject schedulingManaging systems analysis team membersKendall & Kendall3-*Major TopicsProject InitiationDetermining feasibilityDetermining resourcesActivity planning and controlGantt chartsPERT diagramsManaging analysis and design activitiesThe Agile approachKendall & Kendall3-*Project InitiationProblems in the organizationProblems that lend themselves to systems solutionsOpportunities for improvementCaused through upgrading, altering, or installing new systemsKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.1 Checking output, observing employee behavior, and listening to feedback are all ways to help the analyst pinpoint systems problems and opportunitiesKendall & Kendall3-*Problem DefinitionProblem statementParagraph or two stating the problem or opportunityIssuesIndependent pieces pertaining to the problem or opportunityObjectivesGoals that match the issues point-by-pointRequirementsThe things that must be accomplished along with the possible solutions, and constraints, that limit the development of the systemKendall & Kendall3-*Problem Definition StepsFind a number of points that may be included in one issueState the objectiveDetermine the relative importance of the issues or objectivesIdentify which objectives are most criticalKendall & Kendall3-*Selection Of ProjectsBacking from managementAppropriate timing of project commitmentPossibility of improving attainment of organizational goalsPractical in terms of resources for the system analyst and organizationWorthwhile project compared with other ways the organization could invest resourcesKendall & Kendall3-*Determining FeasibilityDefining objectivesDetermining resourcesOperationallyTechnicallyEconomicallyKendall & Kendall3-* Defining Objectives Many possible objectives exist including:Speeding up a processStreamlining a processCombining processesReducing errors in inputReducing redundant storageReducing redundant outputImproving system and subsystem integration Kendall & Kendall3-*Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG)A feasibility impact grid (FIG) is used to assess the impact of any improvements to the existing systemIt can increase awareness of the impacts made on the achievement of corporate objectivesKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.3 An analyst can use a feasibility impact grid to show how each system component affects process objectivesKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.4 An analyst can use a feasibility impact grid to show how each system component affects corporate objectivesKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.5 The three key elements of feasibility include technical, economic, and operational feasibilityKendall & Kendall3-*Technical FeasibilityCan current technical resources be upgraded or added to in a manner that fulfills the request under considerationIf not, is there technology in existence that meets the specificationsKendall & Kendall3-*Economic FeasibilityEconomic feasibility determines whether value of the investment exceeds the time and costIncludes: Analyst and analyst team timeBusiness employee timeHardwareSoftwareSoftware developmentKendall & Kendall3-*Operational FeasibilityOperational feasibility determines if the human resources are available to operate the system once it has been installedUsers that do not want a new system may prevent it from becoming operationally feasibleKendall & Kendall3-*Activity Planning And ControlPlanning includes:Selecting a systems analysis teamEstimating time required to complete each taskScheduling the projectControl includes:Comparing the plan for the project with its actual evolutionTaking appropriate action to expedite or reschedule activitiesKendall & Kendall3-*Estimating TimeProject is broken down into phasesFurther project is broken down into tasks or activitiesFinally project is broken down into steps or even smaller unitsTime is estimated for each task or activityMost likely, pessimistic, and optimistic estimates for time may be usedKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.6 Beginning to plan a project by breaking it into three major activitiesKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.7 Refining the planning and scheduling of analysis activities by adding detailed tasks and establishing the time required to complete the tasksKendall & Kendall3-*Project SchedulingGantt ChartsSimpleLends itself to end user communicationDrawn to scalePERT diagramsUseful when activities can be done in parallelKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.8 Using a two-dimensional Gantt chart for planning activities that can be accomplished in parallelKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.12 A completed PERT diagram for the analysis phase of a systems projectKendall & Kendall3-*PERT Diagram AdvantagesEasy identification of the order of precedenceEasy identification of the critical path and thus critical activitiesEasy determination of slack timeKendall & Kendall3-*TimeboxingTimeboxing sets an absolute due date for project deliveryThe most critical features are developed first and implemented by the due dateOther features are added laterKendall & Kendall3-*Project Due DatesEstimating modelsCostarConstruxFunction point analysisHelps the analyst quantitatively estimate the overall length of software development effortsKendall & Kendall3-*Function Point AnalysisCount componentsRate each component’s complexityAssign complexity numbers Arrive at a subtotalMultiply by adjustment factorKendall & Kendall3-*Based on Five Main Components of Computer SystemsExternal inputsExternal outputsExternal queriesInternal logical filesExternal interface filesKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.15 Function point counts can be accomplished in five stepsKendall & Kendall3-*Staffing RequirementsChoice of software can influence the amount of effort that goes into system developmentIt is not true that the more people assigned to a task, the faster it will get doneKendall & Kendall3-*Managing Risk30 percent of all projects succeed20 percent fail50 percent finish, but are either late, over budget, or offer fewer features than originally promisedKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.16 Calculating the extra time required to ensure that a project is completed on timeKendall & Kendall3-*Managing Analysis and Design ActivitiesTeam managementAssembling a teamTeam communication strategiesProject productivity goalsTeam member motivationKendall & Kendall3-*Assembling a TeamShared value of team workGood work ethicHonestyCompetencyReadiness to take on leadership based on expertiseMotivationEnthusiasm for the projectTrust of teammatesKendall & Kendall3-*Communication StrategiesTeams often have two leaders:One who leads members to accomplish tasksOne concerned with social relationshipsThe systems analyst must manage:Team membersTheir activitiesTheir time and resourcesKendall & Kendall3-*Project Productivity Goals and MotivationSuccessful projects require that reasonable productivity goals for tangible outputs and process activities be setGoal-setting helps to motivate team membersKendall & Kendall3-*Ecommerce Project Management Ecommerce and traditional software project management differences:The data used by ecommerce systems is scattered across the organizationEcommerce systems need a staff with a wide variety of skillsPartnerships must be built externally and internally well ahead of implementationSecurity is of utmost importanceKendall & Kendall3-*Project FailuresProject failures may be prevented by:TrainingExperienceLearning why other projects have failedProject charterDescribes in a written document what the expected results of the systems project are and the time frame for deliveryKendall & Kendall3-*Agile Development An innovative philosophy and methodology comprised of systems development practices, techniques, values, and principles intended for use in developing systems in a dynamic wayKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.17 The analyst can control the time, cost, quality, and scope of the project to balance the activitiesKendall & Kendall3-*Agile Core Practices and Roles of the Agile Approach There are four Agile practices:A short release timeWorking a 40-hour weekHaving an onsite customerPair programmingKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.19 Roles in the Agile Development process include members from inside of the development team as well as at least one onsite customerKendall & Kendall3-*The Planning GameThe planning game defines rules to help formulate the development team and customer relationshipLimits uncertaintyTwo players: the development team and the business customerCustomers decide what to tackle firstKendall & Kendall3-*Development Process for an Agile ProjectAgile projects are interactive and incrementalThe five Stages of Agile development are:ExplorationPlanningIterations to the first releaseProductionizingMaintenanceKendall & Kendall3-*Figure 3.21 The five stages of the agile modeling development process show that frequent iterations are essential to successful system development Kendall & Kendall3-*SummaryProject management fundamentalsProject initiationDetermining project feasibilityActivity planning and controlProject schedulingManaging systems analysis team membersProblem definitionIssues of the present systemThe objective for each issueThe requirements that must be included in all proposed systemsKendall & Kendall3-*Summary (Continued)Project selectionBacked by managementCommitment of resourcesAttains goalsPracticalImportantFeasibilityOperationalTechnicalEconomicKendall & Kendall3-*Summary (Continued)Project planningGantt chartsPERTFunction point analysisTeam managementEcommerce projectsThe Agile approach

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