Bài giảng Kỹ thuật chung ô tô

HOÀNG THANH XUÂN NỘI DUNG . Bài 1: Nhận dạng ôtô Bài 2: Nhận dạng hư hỏng và mài mòn của chi tiết. Bài 3: Phương pháp sửa chữa và công nghệ phục hồi chi tiết bị mài mòn. Bài 4: Làm sạch và kiểm tra chi tiết. Bài 5: Nhận dạng chủng loại động cơ đốt trong Bài 6: Nhận dạng động cơ 4 kỳ. Bài 7: Nhận dạng động cơ 2 kỳ Bài 8: Nhận dạng động cơ nhiều xi lanh Tài liệu tham khảo

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VDX Vh = (dm3) lít 7URQJÿy'ĈѭӡQJNtQK[LODQK PP  S: Hành trình piston (mm). .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 54 ¾ (Va ) 7KӇWtFK[LODQKNKLSLVWRQQҵPӣĈ&' *LӟLKҥQEӣLÿӍQKSLVWRQYjPһWPi\  Va = Vh + Vc ¾ . Là WәQJWKӇWtFKcác xi lanh FӫDÿӝQJ FѫQKLӅX[LODQKWѭѫQJӭQJYӟLKjQKWUuQKS FӫDSLVWRQYjÿѭӧFWtQKQKѭVDX. Vh = . (dm3) lít 7URQJÿy'ĈѭӡQJNtQK[LODQK Pm). S: Hành trình piston (mm). L6ӕ[LODQK 7KӇWtFKF{QJWiFFӫDÿӝQJFѫOjWәQJWKӇWtFKF{QJWiFFӫDFiF[LODQKWURQJÿӝQJFѫ ĈӕLYӟLÿӝQJFѫFӥQKӓGѭӟLOít, tKӇWtFKF{QJWiFWKѭӡQJÿѭӧFWtQKWKHRFP3 (YjWKѭӡQJ JӑLOjFF &zQÿӝQJFѫOӟQWKuWKӇWtFKF{QJWiFWtQKWKHROtW9tGөĈӝQJFѫ[H7R\RWD &DPU\FyWәQJWKӇWtFKF{QJWiFFӫDFiF[LODQKOjO ¾ (Quá trình công tác). /jPӝW SKҫQ FӫD chu trình công tác [ҧ\ UD WURQJ WKӡL JLDQ SLVWRQ GӏFK FKX\ӇQPӝW hành trình. ¾ Chu trình công tác (CTCT). 7әQJFӝQJWҩWFҧFiFTXiWUuQKF{QJWiFGLӉQUDWURQJNKRҧQJWKӡLJLDQWѭѫQJӭQJYӟL P͡WO̯QVLQKF{ng ӣPӝW[\ODQK ¾ 0{LFKҩWF{QJWiF 0&&7 . &KҩW Fy YDL WUz WUXQJ JLDQ WURQJ TXi WUuQK ELӃQ ÿәL QKLӋW QăQJ WKjQK Fѫ QăQJ Ӣ QKӳQJJLDLÿRҥQNKiFQKDXFӫDFKXWUuQKF{QJWiF0&&7FyWKjQKSKҫQWUҥQJWKiLNKiF QKDXYjÿѭӧFJӑLEҵQJQKӳQJWrQNKiFQKDXQKѭNKtPӟLVҧQSKҭPFKi\NKtWKҧLNKt VyWKӛQKӧSFKi\KӛQKӧSNKtF{QJWiF ¾ .KtPӟL- (FzQJӑLOjkKtQҥS  .KtÿѭӧFQҥSYjRNK{QJJLDQF{QJWiFFӫD[\ODQKTXDFӱDQҥSӣÿӝQJFѫGLHVHONKt PӟLOjNK{QJNKtӣÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJNKtPӟLOjKӛQKӧSNK{QJNKt[ăQJ ¾ 6ҧQSKҭPFKi\. 1KӳQJFKҩWÿѭӧFWҥRWKjQKWURQJTXiWUuQKÿӕWFKi\QKLrQOLӋXWURQJNK{QJJLDQF{QJ WiFFӫD[\ODQKYtGө&22, H2O, CO, SO212[YY« ¾ .KtWKҧL .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 55 +ӛQKӧSFiFFKҩWÿѭӧFWKҧLUDNKӓLNK{QJJLDQF{QJWiFFӫD[\ODQKVDXNKLÿmJLmQ QӣÿӇVLQKUDFѫQăQJ.KtWKҧLFӫDÿӝQJFѫÿӕWWURQJJӗPFyVҧQSKҭPFKi\QLWѫ 12) và oxy (O2 FzQGѭ ¾ Khí sót. 3KҫQVҧQSKҭPFKi\FzQVyWOҥLWURQJNK{QJJLDQF{QJWiFFӫD[\ODQKVDXNKLFѫFҩX [ҧÿmÿyQJKRjQWRjQ . ¾ /jWӹVӕJLӳDWKӇWtFKWRjQSKҫQ9a YjWKӇWtFKEXӗQJFKi\9c . NK{QJFyWKӭ nguyên). = = . Tӹ sӕ nén chӍ rõ rҵng thӇ tích xi lanh phía trên piston bӏ giҧm bao nhiêu lҫn, tӭc là bӏ ép nhӓ bao nhiêu lҫQNKLSLVWRQÿLWӯ Ĉ&'OrQÿӃQĈ&77URQJTXiWUuQKÿӝQJFѫKRҥW ÿӝQJ Wӹ Vӕ QpQ Jk\ ҧQKKѭӣQJ OӟQ WӟL FiF WK{QJ Vӕ FӫD FKX WUuQK ÿһF ELӋW WӟL FKҩW OѭӧQJTXiWUuQKFKi\JLmQQӣYjKLӋXVXҩWFӫDÿӝQJFѫF{QJVXҩWFNJQJQKѭKLӋXVXҩWFӫD ÿӝQJFѫ9uYұ\WӹVӕQpQFyPӝWYӏWUtTXDQWUӑQJWURQJQJX\rQOêOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫ 7ӹVӕQpQW\WKXӝFYjRORҥLÿӝQJFѫYjWKѭӡQJFyWUӏVӕQKѭVDX - ĈӝQJFѫ[ăQJ: = 3,5 ÷ 11. 7K̵PFKtKL͏QQD\Fyÿ͡QJF˯ = 11,5 ÷ 12,5. - ĈӝQJFѫGLHVHO: = 13 ÷ 22. ¾ (&{QJVX̭WWtnh toán Ni ). Hình 57ĈӗWKӏP{WҧiSVXҩWWUXQJbình pi. .KLKRҥWÿӝQJSKtD WUrQSLVWRQ OX{QFyiS VXҩW WX\ӋWÿӕLp FӫDP{LFKҩW WURQJ[L ODQKÿҭ\SLVWRQ[XӕQJYjiSVXҩWNKtWKӇErQGѭӟLFDFWHÿҭ\SLVWRQÿLOrQ3KҫQOӟQÿӝQJ FѫÿӕWWURQJFacWHÿѭӧFQӕLWK{QJYӟLiSVXҩWNKtWUӡLKRһFYӟLÿѭӡQJQҥSTXDKӋWKӕQJ .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 56 thông gió cacWHYuYұ\FRLiSVXҩWNKtWUong cacWHNK{QJÿәLYjEҵQJiSVXҩWNKtWUӡL30. +ӧSOӵFGRNKtWKӇWӯKDLSKtD WUrQYjGѭӟL ÿҭ\SLVWRQWURQJ[LODQKVӁOj. Fp = (p ± p0). . 'ĈѭӡQJNtQK[LODQK P  7UrQÿӗWKӏS±YQӃXWXQJÿӝPp FyÿѫQYӏOj 0Pa/mm) YjKRjQKÿӝPv FyÿѫQYӏOj (m3PP WKuF{QJFKӍWKӏFӫDFKXWUuQKOj. Li = f.mp.mv (MN.m). Li ± Là F{QJG˱˯QJ WUrQÿ͛WK͓S-v FӫDFKX WUuQKQKLӋWÿӝQJFӫDÿӝQJFѫ ÿѭӧF [iFÿӏQKWUrQÿӗWKӏF{QJ f )  OjGLӋQWtFKWUrQÿӗWKӏF{QJGRÿѭӡQJQpQDFYjÿѭӡQJFKi\± GmQQӣF]E WҥRWKjQK, I I DF]ED YjF{QJFKӍWKӏVӁEҵQJ Li = Lczb ± Lac (N.m) Pi = = Pi ± ÈSVXҩWFKӍWKӏWUXQJEuQK (N/m2 3D OjF{QJFKӍWKӏWtQKFKRPӝWÿѫQYӏ WKӇWtFKF{QJWiFFӫD[LODQK &{QJVX̭WFK͑ WK͓ FӫDÿӝQJFѫFKtQK Ojdo FiFF{QJFKӍ WKӏ/i FӫDFiF[L ODQK WҥRUD trong mӝWJLk\1ӃXLOjVӕ[LODQKFӫDÿӝQJFѫWDVӁ[iFÿӏQKÿѭӧFF{QJVXҩWFKӍWKӏ1i FӫDÿӝQJFѫTXDÿӗWKӏF{QJS± v QKѭ sau: Ni = (kw) - Vh ± 7KӇWtFKF{QJWiFFӫD[LODQK (m3) - i ± 6ӕ[LODQK - n ± 6ӕYzQJTXD\FӫDWUөFNKXӹXWURQJPӝWJLk\ - - 6ӕNǤFӫDPӝWFKXWUuQK VӕKjQKWUuQKSLVWRQWURQJFKXWUuQK  +LӋQQD\JLiWUӏ3i QҵPWURQJNKRҧQJJLiWUӏVDX ĈӝQJFѫNK{QJWăQJiS Pi = 0,7 ÷ 1,2 Pa. ĈӝQJFѫWăQJiSFyWKӇÿҥW3i = KRһFOӟQKѫQ. ¾ (Ne ) /jF{QJVXҩWFytFKFӫDÿӝQJFѫÿѭӧFSKiWUDWҥLÿX{LWUөFNKXӹXÿӇWӯÿyWUX\ӅQ QăQJOѭӧQJWӟLPi\F{QJWiF O\KӧSUӗLWӟLKӝSVӕ &{QJVXҩWFytFKQKӓKѫQF{QJVXҩW FKӍWKӏ1i Ne = (kW). Pe ± ÈSVXҩWFytFKWUXQJEuQK (MPa); Vh ± 7KӇWtFKF{QJWiF[LODQKWtQKOtW O .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 57 Pe = Pi . m. (Pa KRһF03a). n ± 6ӕYzQJTXD\WUөFNKXӹXWtQKEҵQJYzQJSK~W m ± +LӋXVXҩWFѫJLӟL +LӋXVXҩWFѫJLӟLFӫDFiFORҥLÿӝQJFѫÿӕWWURQJKLӋQQD\ QҵPWURQJNKRҧQJ m = 0,63 ÷ 0,93 YjÿѭӧF[iFÿӏQK m = = ¾ Mômen [RҳQ: Là QJүXOӵFWiFGөQJOrQWUөFWKHRJyF0 OӵF[RҳQWiFGөQJOrQWUөFnhân YӟL NKRҧQJFiFK Wӯ WkP WUөFÿӃQÿLӇPÿһWFӫD OӵF ĈѫQYӏÿRÿҥL OѭӧQJQj\ OE± ft) hay (N.m). 0{PHQ[RҳQÿѭӧF[iFÿӏQKWUrQEăQJWKӱӣÿҫXUDWUөFNKXӹX Me = = 9,55. (N.m) Ne ± &{QJVXҩWFytFK :  n ± 6ӕYzQJTXD\ÿӝQJFѫ YzQJSK~W  7KD\JLiWUӏFӫD1e YjRF{QJWKӭFWD[iFÿLQKÿѭӧF. pe = ¾ (Nm ) /jF{QJVXҩWGQJÿӇNKҳFSKөFPӑLOӵFFҧQWURQJQӝLEӝÿӝQJFѫNKLKRҥWÿӝQJ EDRJӗP - Công tiêu hao FKRPD ViWJLӳD FiFEӅPһW FӫD FiF FһS FKL WLӃW FKX\ӇQÿӝQJ WѭѫQJÿӕL - &{QJGүQÿӝQJEѫPQѭӟFEѫPGҫXEѫPQKLrQOLӋXTXҥWJLyPi\QpQ«ĈӇ ÿҧPEҧRFKRcác KӋWKӕQJSKөKRҥWÿӝQJEuQKWKѭӡQJ - &{QJGүQÿӝQJFѫFҩXSKkQSKӕLNKt WUөFFDP  - 7әQWKҩWFKRFiFKjQKWUuQK³EѫP´FӫDFKXWUuQKF{QJWiF ÿӝQJFѫNǤ GүQ ÿӝQJPi\QpQFӫDÿӝQJFѫNǤKRһFWăQJiSÿӝQJFѫNǤ - 7URQJFiFWәQKDR FѫJLӟLULrQJWәQKDRPDViWJLӳDSLVWRQ[HFPăQJYӟLWKành xyODQKFKLӃP· 60 %. Trong ÿyWәQKDRPDViWJLӳD[HFPăQJ OӟQKѫQWәQ KDRPDViWFӫD piston. Ma ViWWURQJFiFәWUөFFKLӃP·WәQKDRFKR FiFKjQKWUuQKEѫPNKRҧQJ·30 %. 0͙LTXDQ K͏ÿyÿ˱ͫF[iFÿ͓QKQK˱VDX Ne = Ni ± Nm (kW). ¾ (ge ) 0ӭFWLrXWKөQKLrQOLӋXFytFKÿѭӧF[iFÿӏQKQKѭVDX .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 58 ge = Gnl ± 0ӭFWLrXWKөQKLrQOLӋXWURQJPӝWJLӡ NJJLӡ). Ne ± &{QJVXҩWFytFK. (kW). Hay gi = = ge. m 7URQJWKӵFWӃÿӝQJFѫ{W{- Pi\NpR WKѭӡQJOjÿӝQJFѫFDRWӕF Fyge NKRҧQJ·  JN:K ÿӕLYӟLÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOYjNKRҧQJ· JN:K ÿӕLYӟLÿӝQJ[ăQJ &iFWUӏVӕWKӵFWӃgi FӫDFiFORҥLÿӝQJFѫÿӕWWURQJQKѭVDX - ĈӝQJFѫ[ăQJ: gi = 210 ÷ 340 g/kW.h. - ĈӝQJFѫ'LHVHONǤ: gi = 150 ÷ 200 g/kW.h. - ĈӝQJFѫ'LHVHONǤ: gi = 170 ÷ 220 g/kW.h. Ĉ͡QJF˯FyWtQKNLQKW͇FjQJFDRWͱFOjFyJe FjQJQK͗. ͦFiFWjLOL͏XNͿWKX̵WWK˱ͥQJ FKRFiFWK{QJV͙ͧFK͇ÿ͡ÿ͓QKPͱFQK˱ ™ &{QJVX̭W1e N:KD\PmO͹F+3KR̿F3s). ͰQJYͣLV͙YzQJTXD\WUͭFNKXͽX USP KR̿F YJSK . 1HP = 0,746 kW; 1Ps = 735,5 w. ™ 0{PHQF͹Fÿ̩L0emax (N.m hay lb-ft); 1 lb-ft = 1,355 N.m. ͰQJYͣLYzQJTXD\WUͭFNKXͽX (rpm) KR̿F YJSK  ™ 7͙Fÿ͡YzQJTXD\Qe (v/ph). ™ 6X̭WWLrXKDRQKLrQOL͏XJe (g/kW.h). 9tGө Xe Toyota Prius /RҥLÿӝQJFѫ 1.5 l .LӇX 16Valve DOHC Dung tích xi lanh (cc) 1497 cm3 &{QJVXҩWFӵFÿҥL 110HP/ 5000 Vòng/phút 0{PHQ[RҳQFӵFÿҥL 82(lb-ft)/4200 Vòng/phút 6XҩWWLrXKDRQKLrQOLӋX - ĈѭӡQJNtQK[KjQKWUuQKSLVWRQ PP 75*85 +ӋWKӕQJSKXQQKLrQOLӋX 3KXQQKLrQOLӋXÿLӅXNKLӇQÿLӋQ Wӱ 7KӡLJLDQWăQJWӕFWӯÿӃQNPK (giây) N/A +ӝSVӕ CVT 7ӹVӕWUX\ӅQ 9{FҩS .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 59 . .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 60 Hình 58&iFORҥLÿӝQJFѫVӱGөQJQKLrQOLӋX[ăQJYjGҫXGLHVHO .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 61 __@__ Bài 6: 1+Ұ1'Ҥ1*ĈӜ1*&Ѫ.ǣ. 7KͥLJLDQK /77+h) : : - . - . - . : 1. . ƒ +R̩Wÿ͡QJWKHRFKXNǤOêWKX\͇W. Hình 596ѫÿӗnguyên lý KRҥWÿӝQJFӫDÿӝQJFѫNǤ. ¾ Thì hút 3LVWRQÿLWӯ Ĉ&7[XӕQJÿLӇPĈ&'[XSDp hút mӣ.KLSLVWRQÿL[Xӕng tҥo ra mӝt áp thҩp bên trong xylanh (thҩSKѫQiSVXҩt khí trӡi khoҧng 0,1÷ 0,2 kg/cm2), GRÿy hӛn hӧp hoà khí (gӗP[ăQJYjNK{QJNKtÿӅu ÿѭӧc hoà trӝn) và ÿѭӧc hút vào trong xylanh qua ÿѭӡng xupap hút (van nҥp). Góc quay trөc khuӹu tӯ 00 ÷ 1800. ¾ Thì nén 3LVWRQÿLWӯ Ĉ&'OrQĈ&7Fҧ hai xupap ÿӅu ÿyQJNtQ, hӛn hӧp hoà khí bӏ nén lҥi. Ӣ cuӕi thì nén áp suҩt khoҧng p =10 ÷ 15 kg/cm2, t = 3000 ÷ 4000C (các nguyên tӱ chuyӇn .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 62 ÿӝng hӛn loҥn, ma sát lүn nhau sinh ra nhiӋWÿӝ và áp suҩt cao). Trөc khuӹu hoàn thành mӝt vòng quay (3600) khi piston tӟLĈ&7 ¾ Hành trình cháy và giãn nӣ (sinh công). Ӣ cuӕi thì nén bugi nҽt tia lӱDÿLӋQÿӕt cháy khӕLKRjNKtÿDQJEӏ nén, cháy rҩt nhanh, màn lӱa lan tràn khҳp buӗQJÿӕt vӟi tӕFÿӝ khoҧng 20 m/s. Khí cháy có áp suҩt cao sӁ ÿҭ\SLVWRQÿL[Xӕng, lӵc này sӁ làm cho piston chuyӇQÿӝng. NhiӋWÿӝ lúc này khoҧng 20000 ÷ 25000C, p = 40 ÷ 60 kG/cm2. Góc quay trөc khuӹu 3600 ÷ 5400. ¾ Thì xҧ. Xupap xҧ (van xҧ) mӣ UDSLVWRQÿLWӯ Ĉ&'OrQĈ&7ÿҭy sҧn vұt cháy ra ngoài qua ÿѭӡng xupap xҧ (do sӵ chênh lӋch áp suҩt giӳa trong xylanh và áp suҩt khí trӡi). Lúc này góc quay trөc khuӹu là 5400 ÷ 7200, và hoàn thành mӝt chu trình công tác. Tóm lҥi 7URQJÿӝQJFѫWKu, chӍ có thì cháy - giãn nӣ là thì sinh công, còn 3 thì còn lҥi (hút, nén, xҧ) là các thì cҧn, ÿѭӧc thӵc hiӋn nhӡ ÿӝQJQăQJFӫDEiQKÿjKRһc nhӡ công cӫa các [\ODQKNKiF ÿӝQJFѫQKLӅu xylanh). 2 [ăQJ PӝW[LODQK . ¾ . Hình 60+jQKWUuQKOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJNǤ 7UөFNKXӹX;LODQK3LVWRQӔQJQҥS%ӝFKӃKzDNKt ;XSDSQҥS%XJL;XSDSWKҧLӔQJWKҧL7KDQKWUX\ӅQ .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 63 ¾ . .KLÿӝQJFѫOjPYLӋFWUөFNKXӹXTXD\ WKHRFKLӅXPNJLWrQ FzQSLVWRQQӕLEҧQOӅ TXDWKDQKWUX\ӅQ10 YӟLWUөFNKXӹX 1VӁFKX\ӇQÿӝQJWӏQKWLӃQWURQJ[\ODQK0ӛLFKX WUuQKOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJEӕQNǤEDRJӗPKjQKWUuQKOjQҥSQpQFKi\- giãn QӣWKҧL WKӵFKLӋQP͡WO̯QVLQKF{QJ (trong hành trình cháy- JLmQQӣ ĈӇWKӵFKLӋQÿѭӧF QKѭYұ\WKuSLVWRQSKҧLGӏFKFKX\ӇQOrQ[XӕQJEӕQOҫQWѭѫQJӭQJYӟLKDLYzQJTXD\FӫD WUөFNKXӹXÿӝQJFѫ Wӯ0 ÷ 7200 &KXNǤOjPYLӋF WKӵFWӃ FӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJEӕQNǤQKѭ sau. ¾ +jQKWUuQKQ̩S: TroQJKjQKWUuQKQj\NKLWUөFNKXӹXTXD\SLVWRQVӁGӏFKFKX\ӇQWӯĈ&7[XӕQJ Ĉ&'[XSDSQҥSPӣ[XSDSWKҧLÿyQJOjPFKRiSVXҩWWURQJ[\ODQKJLҧPYjGRÿy KRjNKtӣEӝFKӃKRjNKtTXDӕQJQҥSÿѭӧFK~WYjR[\ODQK Hình 61ĈӗWKӏF{QJYjÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKtFӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJNǤ 7UrQÿӗ WKӏ F{QJ ÿӗ WKӏELӇXGLӉQPӕL TXDQKӋJLӳD iS VXҩWYj WKӇ WtFK OjPYLӋF FӫD [\ODQK ӭQJ YӟL PӛL Yӏ WUt NKiF QKDX FӫD SLVWRQ  KjQK WUuQK QҥS ÿѭӧF WKӇ KLӋQ EҵQJ ÿѭӡQJ U-D 7URQJKjQKWUuQKQҥS[XSDSQҥSWKѭӡQJ PӣVӟPWUѭӟFNKLSLVWRQOrQĈ&7 ELӇXWKӏEҵQJÿLӇPG1 ÿӇNKLSLVWRQÿӃQĈ&7 WKӡLÿLӇPEҳWÿҫXQҥS WKu[XSDSÿmÿѭӧF PӣWѭѫQJÿӕLOӟQOjPFKRWLӃWGLӋQOѭXWK{QJOӟQEҧRÿҧPKRjNKtÿLYjR[\ODQKQKLӅX KѫQ*yFӭQJ 1 ÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKt YӟLÿRҥQG1 ÿӗWKӏF{QJ ÿRÿѭӧFJӑLOjJyFPͧVͣP FӫD[XSDSQҥSĈӗQJWKӡL[XSDSQҥSFNJQJÿѭӧFÿyQJPXӝQKѫQPӝWFK~WVRYӟLYӏ WUt SLVWRQӣĈ&' ÿLӇPG2 ÿӇOӧLGөQJÿӝFKkQNK{QJFzQOҥLWURQJ[\ODQKYjOӵFTXiQWtQK FӫDGzQJNKtQҥSOjPWăQJWKrPOѭӧQJKRjNKtQҥSYjR[\ODQK JLDLÿRҥQQҥSWKrP *yF ӭQJ 2 ÿӗ WKӏ SKӕL NKt  YӟL ÿRҥQ DG2 ÿӗ WKӏ F{QJ  ÿѭӧF JӑL Oj JyF ÿyQJPXӝQ FӫD .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 64 [XSDSQҥS9uYұ\TXiWUuQKQҥSNK{QJSKҧLNӃWWK~FWҥLĈ&'PjPXӝQKѫQPӝWFK~W QJKƭDOjVDQJFҧKjQKWUuQKQpQ7X\QKLrQWURQJPӝWVӕFKӃÿӝWӕFÿӝWKҩSGRTXiQWtQK FӫDGzQJNKtQҥSFzQQKӓ GRSd2 > p0 PӝWSKҫQP{LFKҩWÿmÿѭӧFQҥSYjRWURQJ[\ODQK Eӏ OӑW UDQJRjL WURQJJLDLÿRҥQJyFÿyQJPXӝQ[XSiSQҥSNKLÿyQJѭӡL WDJӑL Oj³KLӋQ WѭӧQJWKRiLOXL´9uYұ\JyFTXD\WUөFNKXӹX WѭѫQJӭQJFӫDTXiWUuQKQҥSOj ( 1 + 180 + 2 OӟQKѫQJyFWURQJKjQKWUuQKQҥS0&XӕLTXiWUuQKQҥSiSVXҩWYj QKLӋWÿӝFӫDKRjNKtWURQJ[\ODQKOj3a = 0,8 ÷ 0,9 kG/cm2; Ta = 350 ÷ 4000 K. ¾ Hành trình nén: TURQJKjQKWUuQKQj\[XSDSQҥSYj [XSDSWKҧLÿӅXÿyQJ3LVWRQGӏFKFKX\ӇQWӯĈ&' OrQĈ&7KRjNKtWURQJ[\ODQKEӏQpQiSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDQyWăQJOrQ+jQKWUuQKQpQ ÿѭӧFELӇXWKӏEҵQJÿѭӡQJDF´QKѭQJTXiWUuQKQpQWKӵFWӃFKӍEҳWÿҫXNKLFiF[XSDSQ̩S YjWK̫LÿyQJNtQKRjQWRjQWӭFOjO~FPjKRjNKtWURQJ[\ODQKÿmFiFKO\YӟLP{LWUѭӡQJ ErQQJRjL'RÿyWKӡLJLDQWKӵFWӃFӫDTXiWUuQKQpQ 0 - 2 QKӓKѫQWKӡLJLDQKjQK WUuQKQpQOêWKX\ӃW 0 &XӕLKjQKWUuQKQpQ ÿLӇPF¶ EX-JLFӫDKӋWKӕQJÿiQKOӱD SKyQJWLDOӱDÿLӋQÿӇ ÿӕWFKi\KRjNKt*yFӭQJYӟLÿLӇPF¶KD\JyF s ÿѭӧFJӑLOjJyF ÿiQK OӱDVӟPFӫDÿӝQJFѫ&XӕLKjQK WUuQKQpQiSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDKRjNKt WURQJ xylanh là. Pc = 11 ÷ 15 kG/cm2; Tc = 500 ÷ 7000K. ¾ +jQKWUuQKFKi\JLmQQͧVLQKF{QJ: Trong hành WUuQKQj\[XSDSQҥSYjWKҧLÿyQJ'RKRjNKtÿѭӧFEXJLÿӕWFKi\ӣFXӕL KjQKWUuQKQpQQrQNKLSLVWRQYӯDÿӃQĈ&7WKuWӕFÿӝFKi\FӫDKRjNKtFjQJQKDQKOjP FKRiSVXҩWFӫDNKtFKi\WăQJOrQUҩWOӟQWURQJ[\ODQKYjÿѭӧFELӇXWKӏEҵQJÿѭӡQJF¶] WUrQÿӗWKӏF{QJ7LӃSWKHRTXiWUuQKFKi\OjTXiWUuQKJLmQQӣFӫDNKtFKi\ ÿѭӡQJ]E¶) SLVWRQEӏÿҭ\WӯĈ&7[XӕQJĈ&'YjSKiWVLQKF{QJFKRÿӃQNKL[XSDSWKҧLPӣVӟPWҥL ÿLӇPb¶ ÿӗWKӏF{QJYjĮ3 ÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKtÈSVXҩWWөW[XӕQJÿӝWQJӝWWKӡLJLDQWKӵFWӃ là (ĮijV Į180 - Į3). ÈSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDNKtFKi\OӟQQKҩWWURQJ[\ODQKOj Pz = 40 ÷ 70 kG/cm2; Tz = 2300 ÷ 28000 K. ¾ +jQKWUuQKWK̫L: 7URQJKjQKWUuQKQj\[XSDSQҥSYүQÿyQJFzQ[XSDSWKҧLPӣ3LVWRQGӏFKFKX\ӇQWӯ Ĉ&'OrQĈ&7ÿҭ\NKtÿmFKi\TXDӕQJ WKҧL UDQJRjL7UѭӟFNKLNӃW WK~FKjQK WUuQK cháy ± JLmQQӣVLQKF{QJ[XSDSWKҧLÿѭӧFPӣVӟPPӝWFK~WWUѭӟFNKLSLVWRQWӟLĈ&' ÿLӇPE¶ ÿӇJLҧPEӟWiSVXҩWWURQJ[\ODQKӣJLDLÿRҥQJLmQQӣGRÿyJLҧPÿѭӧFF{QJ WLrXKDRÿӇÿҭ\NKt UDNKӓL[\ODQK1JRjL UDNKLJLҧPiSVXҩWQj\ WKu OѭӧQJVҧQSKҭP FKi\FzQOҥLWURQJ[\ODQKFNJQJJLҧPGRÿyJLҧPÿѭӧFF{QJWURQJTXiWUuQKWKҧLFKtQKYj .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 65 JLҧPÿѭӧFOѭӧQJNKtVyWÿӗQJWKӡLWăQJÿѭӧFOѭӧQJKRjNKtQҥSYjR[\ODQK*yFӭQJYӟL ÿRҥQE¶E´ ÿӗWKLF{QJ KD\JyF 3 ÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKt JӑLOjJyFPͧVͣP FӫD[XSDSWKҧL ĈӗQJ WKӡLÿӇ WKҧLVҥFKNKtFKi\UDNKӓL[\ODQK[XSDS WKҧLFNJQJÿѭӧFÿyQJPXӝQKѫQ PӝWFK~WVRYӟLWKӡLÿLӇPSLVWRQӣĈ&7 ÿLӇPU¶WUrQÿӗWKLF{QJ *yFӭQJYӟLÿRҥQUU¶ là góc 4 JӑL OjJyFÿyQJPX͡Q FӫD[XSDSWKҧL'R[XSDSWKҧLPӣVӟPYjÿyQJPXӝQ QrQJyFTXD\WUөFNKXӹXGjQKFKRTXiWUuQKWKҧL 3 + 180 + 4 OӟQKѫQJyFFӫDKjQK trình tKҧL 180 ÈSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDNKtWKҧLOj Pr = 1,0 ÷ 1,20 kG/cm2; Tr = 900 ÷ 12000K. 7UrQÿӗWKӏF{QJÿRҥQG1r¶ ELӇXWKӏWKӡLNǤWUQJÿL͏S FӫD[XSDSQҥSYj[XSDSWKҧLWӭF OjWKӡLNǤPjKDL[XSDSFQJPӣJyFӭQJYӟLÿRҥQG1U¶OjJyF 1 + 4 Jӑi là góc trùng ÿLӋSFӫDKDL[XSDS6DXNKLKjQKWUuQKWKҧLNӃWWK~FWKuÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJNǤPӝW[\ODQKÿm KRjQWKjQKPӝWFKXNǤOjPYLӋFYjFKX\ӇQVDQJchu trình WLӃSWKHR Hình 626ѫÿӗSKDSKӕLNKtFӫDÿӝQJFѫ1=-)( NǤ  3. diesel . ¾ .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 66 Hình 63&iFKjQKWUuQKOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHONǤNK{QJWăQJiS 7UөFNKXӹX;\ODQK3LVWRQӔQJQҥS%ѫPFDRiS ;XSDSQҥS9zLSKXQ;XSDSWKҧLӔQJWKҧL7KDQKWUX\ӅQ ¾ 4Xi WUuQK OjPYLӋF FӫD ÿӝQJ FѫGLHVHO EӕQNǤ FNJQJJLӕQJQKѭÿӝQJ Fѫ[ăQJ NǤ QJKƭD OjSLVWRQFNJQJSKҧL WKӵFKLӋQEӕQKjQK WUuQKQҥSQpQFKiy-JLmQQӣ WKҧL7URQJ ÿӝQJFѫGLHVHONǤTXiWUuQKQҥSYjQpQP{LFKҩWOjNK{QJNKt PjNK{QJSKҧLKRjNKt YjQKLrQOLӋXWӵFKi\GRNK{QJNKtQpQFyQKLӋWÿӝFDR PjNK{QJGQJWLD OӱDÿLӋQ  &KXNǤOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHONǤQKѭVDX ¾ Hành trình Q̩S 7URQJKjQKWUuQKQj\NKLWUөFNKXӹXTXD\SLVWRQVӁGӏFKFKX\ӇQWӯĈ&7[XӕQJ Ĉ&'[XSDSQҥSPӣ[XSDSWKҧL ÿyQJOjPFKRiSVXҩWWURQJ[\ODQKJLҧPNK{QJ NKtӣErQQJRjLÿѭӧFQҥSYjRWURQJ[\ODQK&XӕLTXiWUuQKQҥSiSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫD hoà khí trong xylanh là. Pa = 0,8 ÷ 0,9 kG/cm2; Ta = 330 ÷ 3800K. ¾ Hành trình nén: 7URQJKjQKWUuQKQj\[XSDSQҥS Yj[XSDSWKҧLÿӅXÿyQJ3LVWRQGӏFKFKX\ӇQWӯĈ&' OrQĈ&7KRjNKtWURQJ[\ODQKEӏQpQiSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDQyWăQJOrQ+jQKWUuQKQpQ ÿѭӧFELӇXWKӏEҵQJÿѭӡQJDF´QKѭQJTXiWUuQKQpQWKӵFWӃFKӍEҳWÿҫXNKLFiF[XSDSQҥS YjWKҧLÿyQJNtQKRjQWRjQ WӭFOjO~FPjKRjNKtWURQJ[\ODQKÿmFiFKO\YӟLP{LWUѭӡQJ ErQQJRjL'RÿyWKӡLJLDQWKӵFWӃFӫDTXiWUuQKQpQ 0 - 2 QKӓKѫQWKӡLJLDQKjQK WUuQKQpQOêWKX\ӃW 0 &XӕLKjQKWUuQKQpQ ÿLӇPF¶ YzLSKXQÿѭӧFEѫPFDRiS FҩSQKLrQOLӋXÿӇSKXQQKLrQOLӋXYjR[\ODQKKRjWUӝQYӟLNK{QJNKtFyQKLӋWÿӝFDRUӗL .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 67 WӵEӕFFKi\ ÿӝQJFѫWӵFKi\ *yFӭQJYӟLÿLӇPF¶ JyF s ÿѭӧFJӑLOjgóc phun nhiên OL͏XVͣP FӫDÿӝQJFѫ&XӕLKjQKWUuQKQpQiSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDKӛQKӧSNKtYjQKLrQ OLӋXWURQJ xylanh là. Pc = 40 ÷ 50 kG/cm2; Tc = 800 ÷ 9000 K. ¾ +jQKWUuQKFKi\JLmQQͧVLQKF{QJ 7URQJKjQKWUuQKQj\[XSDSQҥSYjWKҧLÿyQJ'RQKLrQOLӋXSKXQYjR[\ODQKӣFXӕL KjQKWUuQKQpQÿmÿѭӧFFKXҭQEӏYjWӵEӕFFKi\QrQNKLSLVWRQÿӃQĈ&7WKuQKLrQ OLӋX FKi\FjQJQKDQKOjPFKRiSVXҩWNKtFKi\WăQJOrQKRjNKtFKi\FjQJQKDQKOjPFKRiS VXҩW WURQJ[\ODQK WăQJ OrQ UҩW OӟQYjÿҭ\SLVWRQ WӯĈ&7[XӕQJĈ&'TXD WKDQK WUX\ӅQ OjPTXD\WUөFNKXӹXYjSKiWVLQKF{QJ ÈSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝOӟQQKҩWFӫDNKtFKiy trong xylanh là. Pz = 60 ÷ 80 kG/cm2; Tz = 1900 ÷ 22000K ¾ +jQKWUuQKWK̫L: 7URQJKjQKWUuQKQj\[XSDSQҥSYүQÿyQJFzQ[XSDSWKҧLPӣ3LVWRQGӏFKFKX\ӇQWӯ Ĉ&'OrQĈ&7ÿҭ\NKtFKi\TXD[XSDSWKҧLUDQJRjL 7UѭӟFNKLNӃWWK~FKjQKWUuQKFKi\JLmQQӣVLQKF{QJ[XSDSWKҧLÿѭӧFPӣVӟPPӝW FK~W WUѭӟFNKLSLVWRQ WӟLĈ&' ÿLӇPE¶ ÿӇJLҧPEӟWiS VXҩW WURQJ[\ODQKӣJLDLÿRҥQ FXӕLTXiWUuQKJLmQQӣGRÿyJLҧPÿѭӧFF{QJWLrXKDRÿӇÿҭ\NKtUDNKӓL[\ODQK1JRjL UDNKLJLҧPiSVXҩWQj\WKuOѭӧQJNKtFKi\FzQOҥLWURQJ[\ODQKFNJQJJLҧPQKӡÿyWăQJ ÿѭӧF OѭӧQJKRjNKtQҥSYjR[\ODQK*yFӭQJYӟLÿRҥQE¶E´ hay góc 3 JӑL OjJyFPӣ VӟPFӫD [XSDS WKҧLĈӗQJ WKӡL ÿӇ WKҧL VҥFK NKt FKi\ UD NKӓL [\ODQK [XSDS WKҧL FNJQJ ÿѭӧFÿyQJPXӝQKѫQPӝWFK~WVRYӟL WKӡLÿLӇPSLVWRQӣĈ&7 ÿLӇPU¶ *yFӭQJYӟL ÿRҥQUU¶OjJyF 4 JӑLOjJyFÿyQJPX͡QFͯD[XSDSWK̫L. 'R[XSDSWKҧLPӣVӟPYjÿyQJ PXӝQQrQJyFTXD\WUөFNKXӹXӭQJYӟLTXiWUuQK WKҧL 3 + 180 + 4 OӟQKѫQFӫDKjQK WUuQKWKҧL 180 ÈSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDNKt WKҧLOj Pr = (1,1 ÷ 1,2) kG/cm2; Tr = (800 ÷ 900)0K. 7UrQÿӗWKӏF{QJÿRҥQG1U¶ELӇXWKӏWKӡLNǤWUQJÿLӋSFӫD[XSDSQҥSYj[XSDSWKҧLWӭF OjWKӡLNǤPjKDL[XSDSFQJPӣJyFӭQJYӟLÿRҥQG1U¶OjJyF 1 + 4 JӑLOjJyFWUQJ ÿLӋSFӫDKDL[XSDS6DXNKLNӃWWK~FKjQKWUuQKWKҧLÿӝQJFѫOҥLOһSOҥLFKXWUuQKOjPYLӋF WLӃSWKHRĈӗ WKӏF{QJYjÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKtFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOEӕQNǤFNJQJJҫQWѭѫQJWӵ QKѭFӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJ .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 68 %ҧQJ*yFSKӕLNKtJyFSKXQQKLrQOLӋX JyFÿiQKOӱD  /RҥL ÿӝQJFѫ ;XSiSQҥS ;XSiSWKҧL Góc phun QKLrQOLӋX JyFÿiQK OӱDVӟP 0ӣVӟP WUѭӟF Ĉ&7 ĈyQJPXӝQ VDXĈ&' 0ӣVӟP WUѭӟFĈ&' ĈyQJPXӝQ VDXĈ&7 100 ¹ 300 ĈӝQJFѫ [ăQJ 5 0 ÷ 400 100 ÷ 500 300 ÷ 600 50 ÷ 350 ĈӝQJFѫ diesel 10 0 ÷ 300 450 ÷ 700 300 ÷ 600 50 ÷ 300 1KұQ[pWYӅQJX\rQOêOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJYjÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOEӕQNǤQKѭVDX 7URQJEӕQKjQK WUuQKFӫDSLVWRQFKӍFyPӝWKjQK WUuQKFKi\JLmQQӣVLQKF{QJED KjQK WUuQKFzQ OҥL OjQKӳQJKjQK WUuQKFKXҭQEӏYjÿѭӧF WKӵFKLӋQQKӡÿӝQJQăQJKD\ quiQ WtQK FӫD FiF Eӝ SKұQ FKX\ӇQÿӝQJTXD\ WUzQ WUөF NKXӹX EiQKÿj  YjPӝW SKҫQ F{QJ VLQK UD FӫD QKӳQJ [\ODQK NKiF ÿӕL YӟL ÿӝQJ Fѫ QKLӅX [\ODQK 7KӡL ÿLӇPPӣ Yj ÿyQJFӫDFiF[XSDSQҥSYjWKҧLNK{QJWUQJYӟLWKӡLÿLӇPSLVWRQӣĈ&7YjĈ&'ÿѭӧF JӑLOj³WKӡLÿLӇPSKӕLNKt´ Ĉk\FNJQJOjPӝWÿһFÿLӇPFѫEҧQÿӇSKkQELӋWJLӳD FKXWUuQKOjPYL͏FWK͹FW͇YͣLFKXWUuQKOjPYL͏FOêWKX\͇W7URQJFKXWUuQKOjPYLӋFOê WKX\ӃWFiF[XSDSWKҧLNK{QJPӣVӟPYjÿyQJPXӝQQKѭÿmQyLӣWUrQ7KӡLÿLӇPSKӕL NKtFNJQJQKѭFiFJyFӭQJYӟLWKӡLJLDQPӣYjÿyQJFӫDFiF[XSDSQҥSYjWKҧLÿѭӧFELӇX WKӏ WUrQ ÿӗ WKӏSKӕLNKt&iFJyFPӣ VӟPYjÿyQJPXӝQ JyFSKӕLNKt  FNJQJQKѭJyF SKXQQKLrQOLӋXKRһFJyFÿiQKOӱDӣFXӕLKjQKWUuQKQpQFyҧQKKѭӣQJQKLӅXÿӃQF{QJ VXҩWKLӋXVXҩWYjVXҩWWLrXKDRQKLrQOLӋX7K{QJWKѭӡQJFiFJyFQj\ÿѭӧF[iFÿӏQKEҵQJ SKѭѫQJSKiSWKӵFQJKLӋP . VӅ cҩu tҥo FѫEҧn giӕng hӋt nhau, chӍ NKiFOjÿӝQJFѫ'LHVHONK{QJFy bugi, bӝ chӃ hòa khí Yjÿѭӧc thay bҵQJEѫPFDRiSYjNLPSKXQ7Ӎ sӕ QpQÿӝQJFѫ 'LHVHOFDRKѫQ ÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJ. ¾ ˰XÿL͋P +LӋXVXҩWFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOOӟQKѫQÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJGRKDRSKtQKLrQOLӋXtWYjWӹVӕ QpQFDR9tGө1ӃXÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJFyVXҩWWLrXKDRQKLrQOLӋXOjJe= (150 ÷ 240) g/kW.h WKuÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOOjJe = (110 ÷ 190) JN:KQJKƭDOjOѭӧQJQKLrQOLӋXWLrXKDRӣÿӝQJ Fѫ GLHVHO Oj tW KѫQ ÿӝQJ Fѫ [ăQJ NKRҧQJ  ·  1KLrQ OLӋX GQJ WURQJ ÿӝQJ Fѫ GLHVHOOjGҫXGLHVHOUҿWLӅQYjtWJk\FKi\KѫQVRYӟL[ăQJGQJ WUrQÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJ .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 69 +ӋWKӕQJQKLrQOLӋXFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHO EѫPFDRiSYzLSKXQ tWEӏKѭKӓQJYjGӉGQJ KѫQKӋ WKӕQJQKLrQ OLӋX FӫD ÿӝQJ Fѫ[ăQJ GQJEӝ FKӃ KRj NKt KRһF KӋ WKӕQJSKXQ [ăQJÿLӋQWӱ«  ¾ 1K˱ͫFÿL͋P .tFKWKѭӟFYjWUӑQJOѭӧQJFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOOӟQKѫQÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJYuiSVXҩWNKt FKi\WURQJÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOOӟQ'RÿyWUӑQJOѭӧQJULrQJFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHO WUӑQJOѭӧQJ WUrQPӝWÿѫQYӏF{QJVXҩWWtQKEҵQJN: OӟQKѫQWUӑQJOѭӧQJULrQJFӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJ · ĈӝQJ Fѫ GLHVHO ÿһF ELӋW Oj KӋ WKӕQJQKLrQ OLӋX FKӃ WҥR NKyKѫQÿӝQJ Fѫ [ăQJGRÿyJLiWKjQKFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOWKѭӡQJFDRKѫQÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJÿӝQJFѫGLHVHO GQJQKLrQOLӋXQһQJNKyFKi\YjSKѭѫQJSKiSWҥRKRjNKtJLӳDQKLrQOLӋXSKXQVѭѫQJ YӟL NK{QJNKt NK{QJ WӕW QrQ NKyNKӣL ÿӝQJ KѫQÿӝQJ Fѫ [ăQJ'Rÿy F{QJ VXҩW FӫD ÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOWKӵFWӃFRLQKѭEҵQJF{QJVXҩWFӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJ NKLFQJWKӇWtFKF{QJ WiFYjVӕYzQJTXD\PһFGKLӋXVXҩWFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOFDRKѫQ  __@__ Bài 7: 1+Ұ1'Ҥ1*ĈӜ1*&Ѫ.ǣ 7KͥLJLDQK /7 TH: 5h) : : - . - . - . : . Qua khҧo sát hoҥWÿӝng FKXWUuQKÿӝQJFѫEӕn kǤ thҩy rҵQJĈӝQJFѫEӕn kǤ chӍ sӱ dөng mӝt nӱa thӡi gian cӫa chu trình làm chӭFQăQJFKXWUuQKFӫDÿӝQJFѫQKLӋt (kǤ nén và kǤ giãn nӣ), thӡi gian còn lҥi (kǤ hút và kǤ xҧ ÿӝQJFѫOjm viӋFQKѭmӝWEѫPNKt Khác vӟLÿӝQJFѫEӕn kǤWURQJÿӝQJFѫKDLNǤ FKXWUuQKF{QJWiFÿѭӧc thӵc hiӋn trong mӝt vòng quay trөc khuӹu (hoһc hai hành trình pitston). ViӋc thҧi sҥch sҧn vұt cháy khӓi xilanh và nҥSÿҫy môi chҩt mӟLYjR[LODQK QyLNKiFÿLOj TXiWUuQKWKD\ÿәi môi chҩt) ÿѭӧc thӵc hiӋn trong khu vӵc chuyӇQÿӝng cӫa pitston ӣ gҫQĈ&'/~Fÿҩy viӋc xҧ sҥch khí thҧi ra khӓL[LODQKÿѭӧc thӵc hiӋn không phҧi nhӡ pitston ÿҭy khí thҧi ra ngoài mà là .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 70 nhӡ không khí hoһFKRjNKtÿѭӧFQpQ WUѭӟc tӟi mӝt áp suҩt nhҩWÿӏnh. ViӋFQpQ WUѭӟc không khí hoһc hoà khí ÿѭӧc thӵc hiӋn trong mӝWEѫPNKtTXpWULrQJ ÿӝQJFѫGLHVHO  7URQJÿӝQJFѫKDLNǤ cӥ nhӓ QJѭӡi ta dùng không gian cacte cӫDFѫFҩu trөc khuӹu thanh truyӅn và pitston ÿӝQJ Fѫ OjPEѫPNKt TXpW7URQJTXi WUuQK WKD\ ÿәi môi chҩt trong ÿӝQJFѫ hai kǤ, mӝt phҫn môi chҩt mӟi (không khí hoһFKRjNKt FKѭa tham gia FKi\ÿmFQJ khí xҧ rӡi khӓL[LODQKTXDÿѭӡng thҧi gây nên tәn thҩt môi chҩt mӟi. 2. VӱGөQJQKLrQ OLӋX [ăQJ PӝW[LODQK. ¾ Hình 641JX\rQOtOjPYLӋFÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJKDLNuNK{QJFy[XSDSWKҧL &iFWH7KDQKWUX\ӅQĈѭӡQJQӕLWK{QJNK{QJJLDQErQGѭӟLSLVWRQYӟLÿѭӡQJ GүQNKtTXpW-QҥSĈѭӡQJGүQNKtTXpW&ӱDTXpW3LVWRQ;\ODQK1ҳS[L ODQK%XJL&ӱD[ҧ%ӝFKӃKzDNKt&ӱDK~W7UөFNKXӹX ¾ + .Ǥ hành trình sinh công và thay khí. TURQJKjQKWUuQKQj\SLVWRQÿLWӯĈ&7[XӕQJĈ&'GRKRjNKtÿmÿѭӧFÿӕWFKi\ӣ hành trình QpQ ÿѭӡQJ F ]P FӫD ÿӗ WKӏ F{QJ  ÿҭ\ SLVWRQ ÿL [XӕQJĈ&' TXD WKDQK WUX\ӅQ OjPTXD\ WUөFNKXӹXSKiWVLQKF{QJ.KLSLVWRQGӏFKFKX\ӇQGҫQWӟLĈ&' FӱDWKҧLGҫQPӣ ÿLӇPP, ÿӗWKӏF{QJ Yj ÿLӇPE ÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKt GүQÿӃQiSVXҩWÿӝW QJӝW JLҧP Wrong xi lanh. Lúc này khí cháy sau khi cháy- JLmQ Qӣ Fy iS VXҩW  ·  kG/cm2 OӟQKѫQiSVXҩWNKtWUӡL S0 = 1kG/cm2 ÿѭӧFWKҧLWӵGRUDQJRjL&ӱDQҥSFy FKLӅXWKҩSKѫQFӱDWKҧLFNJQJÿѭӧFPӣ ÿLӇPQ, ÿӗWKӏF{QJYjGÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKt +oà khí ӣGѭӟLFiFWHEӏQpQEӣLSLVWRQFyiSVXҩW ·N*FP2 FDRKѫQiSVXҩWFӫDNKtFKi\ .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 71 FzQOҥLWURQJ[\ODQK aN*FP2 VӁWKHRÿѭӡQJGүQNKtTXDFӱDQҥSYjR[\ODQK NKtQҥSQj\YzQJTXDÿӍQKOӗLSLVWRQOrQEXӗQJÿӕWÿӇTXpWVҥFKSKҫQNKtFKi\FzQOҥL quDFӱD[ҧÿӗQJWKӡLQҥSP{LFKҩWPӟLFKR[LODQK ÿѭӡQJQD QKѭYұ\NKtQҥSPӟL JySSKҫQOjPVҥFKKRjNKtFKi\WURQJÿyYjWҥRÿLӅXNLӋQFKRKjQKWUuQKVDXÈSVXҩWYj QKLӋWÿӝFӫDNKtFKi\WURQJ[\ODQKOj p = (40 ÷ 70) kG/cm2; T = (2000 ÷ 2300)0 K. 1KѭYұ\WURQJ[LODQK - Cháy-JLmQQͧ- WK̫LW͹GR- TXpWNKtWK̫LYjQ̩SP{LFK̭WPͣL Trong cacte. Ép hòa khí. Hình 65ĈӗWKӏF{QJYjÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKtFӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJNǤORҥLNK{QJFy[XSDS ĈӗWKӏF{QJ - (m ± ĈLӇPPӣFӱD[ҧQ± ĈLӇPPӣFӱDQҥSQ¶ ± ĈLӇPÿyQJFӱDQҥS m¶ ± ĈLӇPÿyQJFӱD[ҧ  ĈӗWKӏSKӕLNKt - (a ± 9ӏWUtÿyQJFӱD[ҧE± 9ӏWUtPӣFӱD[ҧF¶ ± 9ӏWUtEұWWLDOӱDÿLӋQ d & d¶ ± 9ӏWUtPӣFӱDQҥSYjÿyQJFӱDQҥS  B A n Vc V (lít) 2P (Mn/m ) c Vh Vn a n m Z C ĈCDĈCT Vh m .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 72 ¾ .ǤKjQKWUuQK . 7URQJKjQKWUuQKQj\NKLWUөFNKXӹXTXD\SLVWRQGӏFKFKX\ӇQWӯĈ&'OrQĈ&7 VӁ OjPWăQJNK{QJJLDQErQGѭӟLSLVWRQNKLSLVWRQPӣFӱDK~WNKLӃQiSVXҩWӣÿk\ WKҩSKѫQiSVXҩWNKtWUӡL FyÿӝFKkQNK{QJ 1KӡÿyNK{QJNKtQJRjLP{LWUѭӡQJÿѭӧF hút WU͹F WL͇S TXDEӝFKӃKzDNKtÿLYjRNK{QJJLDQFDFWH4Xi WUuQKK~WKzDNKtYjR FDFWHYүQWLӃSWөFFKRÿӃQNKLSLVWRQÿyQJFӱDQҥSWҥL ÿLӇPQ¶ ÿӗWKӏF{QJYjd ÿӗWKӏ SKӕLNKt JLDLÿRҥQWӯNKLÿyQJWҥLÿLӇPQ¶ ÿӃQNKLWLӃSWөFÿyQJWҥLÿLӇP P¶ FӱD[ҧ ÿӗ WKӏcông YjÿLӇPDÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKt JLDLÿRҥQQj\JӑLOjJLDLÿR̩QO͕WNKt. 7ӯNKLÿyQJ FӱD[ҧWҥLP¶WLӃSWKHROjJLDLÿRҥQQpQFKRÿӃQNKLEXJLEұWWLDOӱDÿLӋQ VӟPWUѭӟFNKL SLVWRQOrQĈ&7, quá trình cháy-JLmQQӣOҥLEҳWÿҫX 1KѭYұ\WURQJ[LODQK. - 1̩SKzDNKtO͕WNKtWK̫LNKtFKi\QpQP{LFK̭WYjFKi\ Trong cacte. - 1̩SKzDNKt ӢFXӕLKjQKWUuQKQpQiSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDKRjNKtWURQJ[\ODQKOj p = (6 ÷ 10) kG/cm2 ; T = (400 ÷ 600)0 K . 3. diesel PӝW[LODQK ¾ Hình 66&iFKjQKWUuQKOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOKDLNǤFy[XSiSWKҧL 7UөFNKXӹX7KDQKWUX\ӅQ0i\QpQNKt;\ODQK9zLSKXQ;XSiSWKҧL 3LVWRQ%XӗQJNKt&ӱDWKәL .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 73 Hình 67ĈӗWKӏF{QJYjÿӗWKӏSKӕLNKtFӫDÿӝQJFѫGLHVHONǤORҥLFy[XSDSWKҧL ¾ ĈӝQJFѫGLHVHOKDLNǤFyÿһFÿLӇPOjNK{QJGQJFiFWHÿӇFKӭDYjWKәLNKtPjGQJ Pi\QpQNKtULrQJÿӇWKәLNKtWUӵFWLӃSYjRWURQJ[\ODQK&KXWUuQKOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫ Qj\QKѭVDX ¾ .ǤKành trình sinh công và thay khí. 7URQJKjQKWUuQKQj\GRQKLrQOLӋXÿmÿѭӧFÿӕWFKi\YjNK{QJNKtQpQӣQKLӋWÿӝFDR FXӕLKjQKWUuQKQpQFKi\QKDQK ÿѭӡQJF]FӫDÿӗWKӏF{QJ OjPFKRiSVXҩWWăQJOrQYj ÿҭ\SLVWRQWӯĈ&7[XӕQJĈ&'TXDWKDQKWUX\ӅQOjPTXD\WUөFNKXӹXWKӵFKLӋQTXi WUuQKF{QJWiF VLQKF{QJ .KLSLVWRQGӏFKFKX\ӇQJҫQWӟLĈ&'VҳSPӣFӱDWKәL WKu xupap PӣWUѭӟF+zDNKtVDXNKLFKi\-JLmQQӣFyiSVXҩW ·N*FP2 OӟQKѫQiS VXҩWNKtWUӡLÿѭӧFWKҧLUDQJRjLWӵGRiSVXҩWWURQJ[LODQKWөWQKDQK ÿRҥQE¶d). Piston PӣFӱDWKәLPXӝQKѫQÿӗQJWKӡLNK{QJNKtPӟLӣErQQJRjLTXDEuQKOӑFQKӡPi\ QpQNKtEXӗQJNKtYjFӱDWKәLFXQJFҩSYjR[\ODQKYӟLiSVXҩWNKRҧQJ ·  kG/cm2 OӟQKѫQiSVXҩWNKtWKҧLFzQOҥLWURQJ[\ODQK ·N*FP2 WLӃSWөFÿҭ\VҧQ YұWFKi\FzQOҥLTXD[XSDSWKҧLYjWKD\WKӃNKt[ҧQҥSÿҫ\[LODQKÈSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝ FӫDNKtFKi\WURQJ[\ODQKOjS  · N*FP2 ; T = (1900 ÷ 2100)2 K. 6DXKjQKWUuQKVLQKF{QJYjWKD\NKtQӃXWUөFNKXӹXYүQTXD\WKuTXiWUuQKOjPYLӋF FӫDÿӝQJFѫOһSOҥLQKѭWUrQ .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 74 ¾ .ǤKjQKWUuQKQpQ . Trong hành trình nj\NKLWUөFNKXӹXTXD\SLVWRQGӏFKFKX\ӇQWӯĈ&'OrQĈ&7 &ӱDWKәLÿѭӧFSLVWRQÿyQJNtQÿӗQJWKӡLKRһFPXӝQKѫQVRYӟL[XSDSWKҧLNK{QJNKt FyVҹQWURQJ[\ODQKEӏQpQiSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDQyWăQJOrQFKRÿӃQNKLSLVWRQJҫQ ÿӃQĈ&7NKRҧQJ 100 ÷ 300 JyFTXD\WUөFNKXӹX YzLSKXQFӫDKӋWKӕQJQKLrQOLӋXVӁ SKXQQKLrQOLӋXYӟLiSVXҩWFDR ·N*FP2 KuQKWKjQKKӛQKӧSYӟLNK{QJNKt QpQFyQKLӋWÿӝFDROjPFKRQKLrQOLӋXQj\WӵFKi\ÿѭӧF&XӕLKjQKWUuQKQpQiSVXҩWYj QKLӋWÿӝFӫDNhông khí nén trong xylanh là: p = (40 ÷ 50) kG/cm2 ; T = (800 ÷ 900)2 K. 7URQJÿӝQJFѫNǤPӝWSKҫQKjQK WUuQK6n GQJÿӇ WKD\ÿәLP{LFKҩW VӁNK{QJ WKӵF KLӋQTXiWUuQKVLQKF{QJ'RÿyWKӇWtFKF{QJWiFWKӵFWӃFӫD[LODQKV¶h NKL[XSDSWKҧL ÿyQJYjSLVWRQWӯf ÿLOrQÿӃQĈ&7 V¶h = Vh - Vn (Vn WѭѫQJӭQJÿRҥQDI . ¶ = 1KұQ[pWQJX\rQOêOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJKDLNǤYjÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOKDLNǤQKѭVDX 7URQJKDL KjQK WUuQKFӫD SLVWRQ WKu FKӍ FyPӝWKjQK WUuQK VLQKF{QJ FzQFiFKjQK WUuQKFzQOҥLÿѭӧFWKӵFKLӋQQKӡÿӝQJQăQJKD\TXiQWtQKFӫDFiFEӝSKұQFKX\ӇQÿӝQJ TXD\WUzQ WUөFNKXӹXEiQKÿj YjPӝWSKҫQF{QJVLQKUDWӯQKӳQJ[\ODQKNKiFÿӕLYӟL ÿӝQJFѫQKLӅX[\ODQKÈSVXҩWFӫDKRjNKtKRһFNK{QJNKtWKәLYjR[\ODQKOӟQKѫQiS VXҩWNKtWUӡL'RÿySKҧLGQJEѫPWKәLNKtKD\Pi\QpQNKtGRWUөFNKXӹXGүQÿӝQJQrQ F{QJVXҩWÿӝQJFѫFNJQJSKҧLJLҧPÿL7URQJTXiWUuQKOjPYLӋFFyPӝWSKҫQKjQKWUình FӫDSLVWRQGQJÿӇWKәLYjWKҧLNKtNKLWKәLNKtFyPӝWSKҫQQKLrQOLӋXYjNK{QJNKtPӟL WKHRNKtWKҧLUDQJRjLÈSVXҩWYjQKLӋWÿӝFӫDKRjNKtKRһFNK{QJNKtӣFXӕLTXiWUuQK QpQFNJQJQKѭTXiWUuQKFKi\YjJLmQQӣSKөWKXӝFQKLӅXYjRYӏWUtFӫDFӱDWKәLFӱDWKҧL YjWӹVӕQpQFӫDÿӝQJFѫ7URQJÿӝQJFѫKDLNǤTXiWUuQKWKәL QҥS QpQFKi\JLmQQӣ YjWKҧLNK{QJÿѭӧFWKӇKLӋQU}UjQJӣPӛLKjQKWUuQKQKѭÿӝQJFѫNǤ'RÿyÿӝQJFѫ KDLNǤKjQKWUuQKWKӭQKҩWOj KjQKWUuQKVLQKF{QJWKҧLYjWKәL FzQKjQKWUuQKWKӭKDLOj KjQKWUuQKWKәLWKҧLYjQpQYY« ¾ . ˰XÿL͋P ĈӝQJFѫKDLNǤFyVӕKjQKWUuQKVLQKF{QJJҩSÿ{L NKLFQJVӕYzQJTXD\Q YjFy F{QJVXҩWOӟQKѫQNKRҧQJ ·  NKLFQJWKӇWtFKOjPYLӋF9h YjVӕYzQJTXD\Q  VRYӟLÿӝQJFѫNǤĈӝQJFѫKDLNǤFKҥ\ÿӅXYjrPKѫQÿӝQJFѫNǤYuPӛLYzQJTXD\ FӫDWUөFNKXӹXFyPӝWKjQKWUuQKVLQKF{QJ'RÿyYӟLFiFÿLӅXNLӋQQKѭQKDX 6'LYj .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 75 Q WKuӣÿӝQJFѫKDLNǤ FyWKӇGQJEiQKÿjOҳSWUrQWUөFNKXӹXFyNtFKWKѭӟFYjWUӑQJ OѭӧQJQKӓKѫQVRYӟLÿӝQJFѫNǤĈӝQJFѫKDLNǤNK{QJFy[XSDSQҥSYjQӃXGQJ caFWHÿӇWKәLNKtYjR[\ODQKWKuFҩXWҥRÿѫQJLҧQYjGӉVӱGөQJKѫQVRYӟLÿӝQJFѫEӕQ NǤ« 1K˱ͫFÿL͋P HLӋXVXҩWFӫDÿӝQJFѫKDLNǤQKӓKѫQVRYӟLÿӝQJFѫEӕQNǤGRFyVӵKDRSKtQKLrQ OLӋXWURQJTXiWUuQKWUDRÿәLNKt1KLӋWÿӝWURQJTXiWUuQKOjPYLӋFFӫDÿӝQJFѫKDLNǤOӟQ KѫQVRYӟLÿӝQJFѫNǤGRFyVӕOҫQVLQKF{QJQKLӅXKѫQOjPFKRÿӝQJFѫEӏÿӕWnóng YjÿһFELӋWÿӕLYӟLÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOGӉEӏEiPPXӝLWKDQӣEXӗQJFKi\YY 7URQJÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJKDLNǤQӃXGQJFiFWHFKӭDGҫXE{LWUѫQÿӇWKәLNKtWKuGӉOjP KӓQJGҫXE{L WUѫQ&ăQFӭYjRQKӳQJѭXÿLӇPWUrQÿӝQJFѫ[ăQJKDLNǤ WKѭӡQJÿѭӧF GQJӣ ÿӝQJ Fѫ Fy F{QJ VXҩW QKӓ9t Gө ÿӝQJ FѫSKөӣPi\NpR ÿӝQJ FѫPi\SKXQ WKXӕFYjPӝWVӕÿӝQJFѫP{W{[HPi\&zQÿӝQJFѫGLHVHOKDLNǤOҥLÿѭӧFGQJQKLӅXӣ ÿӝQJFѫFyF{QJVXҩWWUXQJEuQKYjOӟQYtGөÿӝQJFѫRWRWjXWKXӹÿҫXPi\[HOӱDPi\ [k\GӵQJYjPi\SKiWÿLӋQ __@__ Bài 8: 1+Ұ1'Ҥ1*ĈӜ1*&Ѫ1+,ӄ8;,/$1+ 7KͥLJLDQK /77+K : : - - : . 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Hình 686ѫÿӗNӃWFҩXWUөFNKXӹX± WKDQKWUX\ӅQFӫDÿӝQJFѫNǤ [LODQKJyFOӋFKF{QJWiF0 . 9ӟLÿӝQJFѫEӕQNǤEӕQ[\ODQKPӝWKjQJ WKӭ WӵF{QJ WiF-3-4- &yJyF OӋFK F{QJWiFOjįk = 1800 FyEҧQJF{QJWiFQKѭVDX .ͿWKX̵WFKXQJRWR Hoàng Thanh Xuân 2010 77 0 Xy lanh (00 ÷ 1800) (1800 ÷ 3600) (3600 ÷ 5400) (5400 ÷ 7200) 1 1ҥS Nén 1ә 7KҧL 2 Nén 1ә 7KҧL 1ҥS 3 7KҧL 1ҥS Nén 1ә 4 1ә 7KҧL 1ҥS Nén .KLWUөFNKXӹXTXD\ÿѭӧc 3/4 YzQJWKӭ hai[\ODQKÿDQJӣNǤ cháy ± JLmQQӣ, piston WӯĈ&7[XӕQJĈ&'NKLÿySLVWRQFӫD[\ODQKWKӭFNJQJWӯĈ&7[XӕQJĈ&'QKѭQJ OҥLWURQJTXiWUuQKQҥS3LVWRQFӫD[\ODQKWKӭYjWKӭFNJQJÿLWӯĈ&'OrQĈ&7QKѭQJ x\ODQKÿDQJWURQJTXiWUuQKWKҧLFzQ[\ODQKWURQJTXiWUuQKQpQ .KLWUөFNKXӹXTXD\ WLӃSQӱDYzQJcuӕLWKӭ 2 (5400 ÷ 7200 SLVWRQFӫD[\ODQKYjÿӅXWӯĈ&'OrQĈ&7 QKѭQJ[\ODQKWKӵFKLӋQTXiWUuQKWKҧL FzQ[\ODQKÿDQJWKӵFKLӋn quá trình nén. 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