Xã hội học - Terrorism

To keep a record of “little” suspicious activities observed by officers. To “connect the dots” between these observations. To apply critical thinking skills. To foil a terrorist attack or some other criminal activity.

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TWENTYTerrorismLEARNING OBJECTIVESExplain mission‑specific and sleeper cellsBe familiar with different terrorist groups that threaten the United States and its alliesDistinguish between right‑wing and left‑wing terroristsDescribe four prominent national structures involved in terrorist intelligence, and outline their responsibilitiesDefine joint terrorism task forcesIdentify the purpose of a suspicious‑activity logUnderstand the process of critical thinkingDescribe the function of a reconnaissance operation20-1INTERNATIONAL TERRORISMThe use or threatened use of violence against persons or property by a group (or an individual) whose operations transcend national boundaries and are done to further political or social objectives20-2PARTIAL ACCOUNTING OF GLOBAL TERRORISMThe world and now the U.S. are not strangers to terrorismThe past two decades have demonstrated a continuing pattern of terrorist-caused violenceThe tragedy of September 11th has resulted in the U.S. declaring war on terrorism20-3PARTIAL ACCOUNTING OF GLOBAL TERRORISM20-3YearGroupAction1981Red ArmyBomb explosion on U.S. Airbase at Ramstein, then in West Germany1981Takflr Wal-Hajira sectAssassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat during a troop review1983Islamic JihadU.S. Embassy bombing, Beruit1983Islamic JihadSuicide bomb truck, Marine Barracks, Beruit1984HizballahBomb attack, Torrenjon, Spain, restaurant popular with U.S. Service menbers1984Sikh terroristsSeize the Golden Temple in India, 100 killed1985NacrotraffickersIn Mexico, kidnap, torture, interrogate a DEA agent and his pilot on orders from Rafael Cero1986North Korean agentsDetonate bomb at South Korea’s Kimpo Airport in South Korea1987Libyan agentsBomb attack in Berlin discoteque frequented by U.S. military members1988Organization of Jihad BrigadesCar bomb exploded outside of USI Club in Naples, Italy1988Libyan terroristsPan American flight 103 blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland1989New People’s ArmyAssassination of U.S. Army Colonel Rowe in Manila; he had survived long years of captivity during the war in South Vietnam1990New People’s ArmyTwo U.S. airmen assassinated in the Phillipines1990Tupac Amaru Revolutionary MovementPeru, U.S. Embassy bombed1993Followers of cleric Umar Abd al-RahmanWorld Trade Center bombing, NYC1993Iraqi Intelligence ServiceAttempted to assassinate President Bush during visit to KuwaitPARTIAL ACCOUNTING OF GLOBAL TERRORISM20-3YearGroupAction1994Baruch GoldsteinJewish right-wing extremist, who was also an American citizen, uses machine gun at mosque, killing 29 and wounding an estimated 1501995Unidentified gunmenKarachi, Pakistan, assassination of two American diplomats1995Right-wing extremistsBombing of U.S. Federal Building, Oklahoma City, killing 1661995UnknownA rocket propelled grenade (RPG) fired through the window of the U.S Embassy in Moscow, perhaps as retaliation for U.S. air strikes against Serbian positions in Bosnia1996Irish Republican Army (IRA)Bomb detonated in London, killing two and wounding more than 1001996Tamil TigersLiberation of Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) explode bomb in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 90 slain and over 1,400 injured1996Several groups claim responsibilityU.S. Military’s housing facility in Dhahran, Khobar Towers, fuel truck carrying explosives kills 19 and wounds 5151996Tupac Amaru23 members of the Tupac Amaru Revolution Movement (MRTA) take several hundred hostages at the Japanese Ambassador’s residence in Lima, Peru1997Palestinian gunmanObservation Deck, Empire State Building, NYC, gunman opens fire on tourists from several countries, killing one and injuring others, kills himself. Note left by gunman state this was a punishment attack on “the enemies of Palestine.”1998Al-QuedaBombings of U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, a total of 69 were killed in the attacks and some 5,077 wounded1999FARCThree U.S. Citizens kidnapped by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia and executed in Venezuela, one of numerous FARC attacks reported2000Al-QuedaU.S.S. destroyer Cole attacked by launch filled with explosives, causing major damage to the ship, killing 17, and injuring another 392001Al-QuedaTwin Towers and Pentagon attacks, producing horrific casualtiesMISSION SPECIFIC CELLSIn terrorist organizations, small units put together for the purpose of executing a specific assignment20-4THE PENTAGON AFTER TERRORIST ATTACKThe Pentagon was also a target of terrorists on 9/11/01This attack was performed by a mission-specific cell of terrorists20-5© Reuters NewMedia Inc./CorbisSLEEPER CELLSIn terrorist organizations, small groups of recruits who are in place in target and other countries, living ordinary lives until activated for the cause; may also perform services for their immediate group (e.g., courier and reconnaissance tasks)20-6DOMESTIC TERRORISMThe use or threatened use of violence against persons or property by a group (or an individual) whose operations are entirely within the victims’ nation, without foreign direction, and are done to further political or social objectives20-7DOMESTIC TERRORISM Domestic terrorism in the U.S. can be divided into three groups:Right‑Wing Terrorists. Often adhere to the principles of racial supremacy and embrace antigovernment, antiregulatory beliefs.Left‑Wing Terrorists. Profess a revolutionary socialist doctrine and view themselves as protectors of the people against the 'dehumanizing effects’ of capitalism and imperialism. Special‑Interest Groups. Perhaps the most active special‑interest groups in the United States are the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF).20-8THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBINGThe Federal Building in Oklahoma City was bombed in 1995The bombing was committed by a right-wing domestic terroristTimothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were convicted in this horrible crime20-9© AFP/CorbisTHREAT ASSESSMENT Of necessity, threat assessments are ongoing and subject to change as usable intelligence about intentions and capabilities of existing and new groups is producedSince 1968,14,000 international terrorist attacks have taken place throughout the worldIn the United States, between 1980 and 1999, there were 457 prevented, suspected, or actual terrorist acts, of which 163 involved international terrorists20-10TERRORISM BY GROUP CLASS 1980-1999Today the U.S. must be vigilant about both international and domestic terrorismBetween 1980 and 1999 163 such acts in the U.S. involved international terrorists20-11(Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Terrorism in the United States [Washington, DC: FBI, 1999), p. 33).TERRORISM BY EVENT, 1980-1999Bombings were the most frequent type of terrorist event in the U.S. between 1980-1999Bombings cause destruction, result in loss of lives, and place entire cities in fear20-12(Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Terrorism in the United States [Washington, DC: FBI, 1999), p. 41).NATIONAL STRUCTURES The National Infrastructures Protection Center (NIPC) is responsible for:Protecting and investigating unlawful acts against U.S. computers And information technologies and unlawful acts, both physical and electronic, that threaten or target critical U.S. infrastructuresEnacted in response to the September 11 attacks the U.S. Patriot Act of 2001 provides law enforcement with new, broadened electronic surveillance authority20-13(a)NATIONAL STRUCTURES (cont'd) The National Domestic Preparedness Office (NDPO) is responsible for assisting state and local authorities with the planning, equipping, and training, including health and medical support, needed to respond to a WMD attackThe FBI Counterterrorism Center operates on three fronts: international terrorism operations both within the United States and abroad, domestic terrorism operations, and counterterrorism measures at home and abroad20-13(b)JOINT TERRORISM TASK FORCES (JTTFS) Joint terrorism task forces (JTTFs) are responsible for gathering and acting on intelligence related to international and domestic terrorism, conducting investigations related to planned terrorist acts, preventing such acts, and investigating terrorist acts in their geographic areas of responsibility. Consisting of representatives of federal agencies and state and local enforcement officers, JTTFs are ultimately supervised by the FBI.20-14PURPOSE OF A SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITY LOGTo keep a record of “little” suspicious activities observed by officers.To “connect the dots” between these observations.To apply critical thinking skills.To foil a terrorist attack or some other criminal activity.20-15THE PROCESS OF CRITICAL THINKINGRigorously challenging your viewsAlso challenging the views of othersReasonably assessing the basis of:assumptionsbeliefs20-16FUNCTION OF A RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONThe following activities may occur prior to a terrorist act:Rooms are rented that allow a view of the targetInsiders may be recruited to provide drawings and copies of target floor plans.Jobs may be taken that allow access to the target sitePhotos may be taken of the site20-17BIOLOGICAL AGENTSCertain microorganisms and toxins produced by organisms (e.g., smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism) that cause human illness or death and could be used as terrorist weapons; typically slower acting than chemical agents20-18AN OPENED LETTER CONTAINING ANTHRAX Following the tragedy of September 11, 2001 several letters containing anthrax were discoveredThe photo is of one such letter sent to news anchor Tom BrokawLater postal employees and others were given training on how to spot and deal with suspicious mail20-19(Courtesy Federal Bureau of Investigation)CHEMICAL AGENTSRapidly acting substances (e.g., mustard gas, sarin, V agents) that produce a variety of incapacitating symptoms or death; as weapons, can cause mass casualties and devastation20-20AGROTERRORISMThe use of biological agents as weapons against the agricultural and food supply industries20-21

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