Tổng hợp kiến thức anh văn chuyên ngành trong lĩnh vực quản lý đất đai

Nội Dung: - Tổng hợp anh văn chuyên ngành trong lĩnh vực quản lý đất đai. - Là anh văn chuyên ngành chuyên môn trong đất đai thường được giảng dạy trong các trường đại học. - Có phiên dịch và phiên âm rất dễ hiểu. - Chuyên ngành trong từng môn khác nhau trong ngành quản lý đất đai như: Thổ nhưỡng và môi trường đất, khoa học đất, Chúc các bạn thành công!

pdf11 trang | Chia sẻ: tlsuongmuoi | Ngày: 10/07/2013 | Lượt xem: 2800 | Lượt tải: 3download
Bạn đang xem nội dung tài liệu Tổng hợp kiến thức anh văn chuyên ngành trong lĩnh vực quản lý đất đai, để tải tài liệu về máy bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
Tiếng anh chuyên ngành Thổ nhưỡngvà Môi trường đất NXB Đại học quốc gia Hà Nội 2007. Tr 15 – 24. Tài liệu trong Thư viện điện tử ĐH Khoa học Tự nhiên có thể được sử dụng cho mục đích học tập và nghiên cứu cá nhân. Nghiêm cấm mọi hình thức sao chép, in ấn phục vụ các mục đích khác nếu không được sự chấp thuận của nhà xuất bản và tác giả. Mục lục Unit 2 RESOURCES.............................................................................................................. 2 A. READING...................................................................................................................... 2 B. WRITING....................................................................................................................... 5 C. FURTHER PRACTICE ................................................................................................. 7 D. TRANSLATION............................................................................................................ 9 E. VOCABULARY .......................................................................................................... 10 Unit 2. RESOURCES Nguyễn Thị Minh Nguyệt Unit 2 RESOURCES A. READING *WARM-UP ACTIVITIES - HOW MANY KINDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES ARE THERE? - WHY ARE THEY IMPORTANT TO OUR LIFE? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Types of resources: A resource is anything we get from the living or nonliving environment to meet our needs and wants. We usually define resources in terms of humans, but resources are needed by all forms of life for their survival and good health. Some resources, such as solar energy, fresh air, fresh surface water, fertile soil and wild edible plants, are directly available for use. Most human resources, such as petroleum (oil), iron, groundwater (water occurring underground), and modern crops, aren't directly available, and their supplies are limited. They become resources only with some effort and technological ingenuity. Petroleum, for example, was a mysterious fluid we learned how to find it, extract it, and refine it into gasoline, heating oil, and other products at affordable prices. On our short human time scale we classify resources as renewable, potentially renewable, and nonrenewable. Non-renewable resources: nonrenewable, or exhaustible, resources exist in fixed quantities in the earth's crust. They include energy resources (coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, geothermal, energy), metallic mineral resources (iron, copper, aluminum), and nonmetallic mineral resources (salt, gypsum, clay, sand, phosphates, water and soil). We know how to find and extract more than 100 non-renewable minerals from the earth's crust. We convert these raw materials into many everyday items we use and then discard, reuse, or recycle them. We never completely run out of any non-renewable mineral. But a mineral becomes economically depleted when finding, extracting, transporting, and processing the remaining deposits cost more than the results are worth. At that point we have five choices recycle or reuse existing supplies, waste less, use less, find a substitute, or do without and wait millions of years for more to be produced. Some non-renewable material resources, such as copper and aluminum, can be recycled or reused to extend supplies. Recycling involves collecting and reprocessing a resource into new products. For example, aluminum cans can be collected, melted and made into new beverage cans or other aluminum products. And glass bottles can be crushed and melted to make new bottles or other glass items. Reuse involves using a resource or over and over in the same form. Example, glass bottles can be collected, washed, and refilled many times. Other non-renewable fuel resources - such as coal, oil, and natural gas- can't be recycled or reused. Once burned, the useful energy in their fossil fuels is gone, leaving behind only waste heat and polluting exhaust gases. Most of the economic growth per person has been fueled by nonrenewable oil, which is expected to be economically depleted within 40 to 80 years. Renewable resources: Solar energy is called a renewable resource because on a human time scale it is essentially inexhaustible. It is expected to last at least 4 billion years while the sun completes its life cycle. A potentially renewable resource can be renewed fairly rapidly through natural processes. Examples of such resources include forest trees, grassland grasses, wild animals, fresh lake and stream water, groundwater, fresh air, and fertile soil. One important potentially renewable resource for us and other species is biological diversity, or biodiversity. It consists of all of Earth's living organisms, classified into groups of organisms called species, which resemble one another in appearance, behavior, and chemical and genetic makeup. But potentially renewable resources can be depleted. The highest rate at which a potentially renewable resource can be used without reducing its available supply is called its sustainable yield. If this natural replacement rate is exceeded, the available supply begins to shrink-a process known as environmental degradation. (Taken from "Sustaining the Earth" by Tyler Miller, G) COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS 1. What kinds of resources are available for use? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. How are resources divided into? ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 3. What are the differences between renewable resources and nonrenewable resources? ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 4. What are nonrenewable resources composed of? ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 5. What can we do with nonrenewable minerals extracted from the Earth's crust? ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 6. What are nonrenewable fuel resources? Why can not they be recycled or reused? ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 7. Why do people regard solar energy as a renewable resource? ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 8. What do people think about solar energy? ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 9. Give two examples of recycling in the text or you have known? ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 10. What do you think about the natural resources in the future? ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ TRUE - FALSE SENTENCES Decide whether the following statements are true "T", false "F" or there’s no information given "N" according to the text. Correct the false statements ..... There are three kinds of resources. They are non-renewable resources, renewable resources and potentially renewable resources. ..... Solar energy, fresh air, fresh surface water are infinite. ..... Waste heat and polluting exhaust gases are caused when burning coal, oil and natural gas. ..... Recycling and reusing existing supplies are two ways to reduce any non-renewable mineral in quantity. ..... It is possible to change renewable resources into non-renewable resources if we cultivate land without proper soil management. ..... Air, water and soil are usable when they are polluted. ..... Iron, copper and aluminum are all energy resources. INCREASING YOUR VOCABULARY Which words or phrases in the text have the same meaning as: 1. meet our demands ............................ 2. consist of ............................ 3. come to an end ............................ 4. used again ............................ 5. get rid of ............................ 6. take out ............................ 7. change to liquid by the action of heat ............................ 8. can be renewed ............................ 9. can be made new again ............................ 10. to be supposed ............................ B. WRITING SENTENCE - TRANSFORMING FINISH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN SUCH A WAY THAT IT MEANS THE SAME AS THE SENTENCE PRINTED BEFORE IT. 1. There are three types of resources: renewable, potentially renewable and nonrenewable resources. Resources consist... ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 2. Nonrenewable fuel resources cannot be recycled or reused. People... ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 3. We call solar energy a renewable resource. We consider... ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 4. They recycle copper and aluminium to extend supplies. In order... ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 5. One of causes of environmental degradation is the overuse of common-property resources owned by none and available to all. One of causes ...........which... ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 6. Solar supplies all the energy used to grow plants, to evaporate water for rain and to maintain the temperature of the planet, all necessary for human life. Solar supplies all the energy which ... ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 7. Solar energy includes the production of electricity and heat directly from solar radiation for many applications. Solar energy consists... ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ SENTENCE - BUILDING Make necessary change and additions to complete the following sentences from the prompts given bellow. 1. Natural resources / be / materials / that / we / need / maintain / society. ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 2. They / from / rocks / oceans / tissues of animals / plants / that / live / Earth / us. ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 3. These materials / be / use / directly / or / process / into / household products / clothes / machinery / building. ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 4. Resources / exist / fixed quantity / earth's crust / be / call / non-renewable resources. ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 5. Most of non-renewable resources / be / minerals / that / be / use / industry. ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 6. Whereas / renewable resources / be/ not / fixed / quantity. ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ 7. With proper management / such resources / will / available / man's use / indefinitely. ........................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................ CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING USING THE ITEMS FROM THE BOX BELOW TO COMPLETE THE FLOWCHART TO CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING AFTER READING THE WHOLE TEXT. PLANTS AND ANIMALS NON-RENEWABLE POTENTIALLY RENEWABLE DIRECT SOLAR ENERGY NON-METALLIC MINERALS (CLAY, SAND, PHOSPHATES) FRESH AIR METALLIC MINERALS (IRON, COPPER, ALUMINUM) FERTILE SOIL FIGURE 1: MAJOR TYPES OF MATERIAL RESOURCES. THIS SCHEME ISN'T FIXED: POTENTIALLY RENEWABLE RESOURCES CAN BECOME NON- RENEWABLE RESOURCES IF USED FOR A PROLONGED TIME AT A FASTER RATE THAN THEY ARE RENEWED BY NATURAL PROCESSES. C. FURTHER PRACTICE Exercise 1: Gap-filling Choose one of the words or phrases bellow to fill in the gap in the following passage. Each word or phrase is used once only. energy discovered owing to pulled capable generate power tamed RESOURCES PERPETUAL (1)........... (2)..... WINDS, TIDES, FLOWIN G WATER FOSSIL FUELS (3)...... (4)....... (5)..................... FRESH WATER (7)........ (8)......... (6)......... carry invented primitive throughout extent invention protect era (1).................... history, man has developed sources of energy to do his work. (2) ....................man had only the strength of his arms and the use of fire. He later (3) ....................how to use the energy of the wind to move his sailing vessels. He used the energy of water to turn his mills. He (4)....................animals as new sources of energy. They (5) ....................plows and wagons. A new stage in the development of the use of energy came with the invention of the steam engine. Steam could be used to develop the energy used to run machines. The discovery of electricity created an even important way of using energy. So did the invention of the gasoline engine. Man entered into a new (6) ....................of the use of energy, with the application of nuclear energy. Man finds many ways to release energy to do work. For example, he changes the energy in a waterfall into electrical energy. He can turn this electrical current into radio waves that can (7) ....................his ideas for thousands of miles. He can release the energy into gasoline by burning it and using it to (8) .................... automobiles. He can use coal to turn water into steam and, in turn, use the steam to (9) ....................electrical energy. The nucleus of certain atoms can produce millions of times more (10) ...................per pound of material than can be made available by chemical means. (Taken from "Longman Tests in Context" by Heaton, J.B) Exercise 2: Gap-filling Find the missing words to fill in the gaps in the sentences from the given words below: shower storm frost breeze lightning cliffs shade temperature climate thunder valleys coast 1. During the night (1) .................... will fall below freezing and there will be a (2) .................... 2. During the (3) .................... many trees were blown down. 3. Although it was really boiling in the sun, there was a light (4) .................... from the sea, which made it feel quite pleasant in the (5) .................... 4. Although the storm passed us by, we could hear the (6) .................... and see the (7) .................... in the distance. 5. It is not going to rain all day, it's just quite a (8) ..................... We'll soon be able to go out. 6. The scenery in the north of the country is spectacular with (9) .................... and high snow-capped peaks, but the (10) .................. tends to be cool and wet. 7. The west (11) .................... of the country has high (12) .................... as well as sandy beaches. (Taken from "Progress to first Certificate" by Leo Jones) D. TRANSLATION TRANSLATE INTO VIETNAMESE 1. ALTHOUGH NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES EVENTUALLY RETURN TO THE EARTH AFTER WE HAVE USED THEM, THEY DO SO IN DIFFERENT FORMS AND ARE DISPERSED AND SO IT IS OFTEN DIFFICULT TO GATHER THEM TO USE AGAIN. MERCURY IS AN EXAMPLE OF AN UNCOMMON METAL THAT IS USED IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES, AND IN AGRICULTURE TO KILL FUNGI. AFTER USE, IT ENTERS THE ATMOSPHERE AND OCEANS. UNFORTUNATELY IT IS NOW SO WIDELY SCATTERED THAT THERE IS NO WAY GETTING IT BACK. ONCE USED THEN NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES FREQUENTLY CANNOT BE USED AGAIN. WHEN WE RUN OUT OF THE EASILY AVAILABLE SUPPLIES THERE WILL BE NO MORE. 2. RECYCLING IS A CHALLENGE BECAUSE IT REQUIRES A BASIC CHANGE IN EVERYDAY LIFE. FOR RECYCLING TO BE SUCCESSFUL, ORDINARY PEOPLE MUST BE AWARE OF WHAT THEY BUY. THEY MUST ALSO SORT THEIR TRASH AND GARBAGE INTO CATEGORIES: ORGANIC GARBAGE, NEWSPAPERS, STEEL CANS, GLASS CONTAINERS (SOMETIMES SORTED BY COLOUR) AND PLASTIC. THE WASTE DISPOSAL TRUCKS HAVE SEPARATE COMPARTMENTS FOR EACH CATEGORY. THE TRUCKS DELIVER THE WASTE TO A RECYCLING CENTER WHERE THERE IS MORE STORING. WASTE MATERIALS OF THE SAME KIND ARE COMPACTED (CRUSHED INTO BLOCKS). A MANUFACTURER BUYS THE SORTED, COMPACTED BLOCKS OF MATERIAL TO MAKE INTO SOMETHING NEW. ONCE A CUSTOMER BUYS AND USES THE PRODUCT, THE SAME MATERIALS FOLLOW THE SAME CYCLE – BEING STORED, COLLECTED AND USED AGAIN. IN THE END, THE REAL MEANING OF RECYCLING IS PROTECTING PLANET EARTH, KEEPING IT SAFE AND CLEAN FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS. IT IS ONE WAY FOR EVERYONE TO CONTRIBUTE TO A BETTER WORLD. (Taken from "Between the Liness" by Faust, Susan S. Johnston & Clark S. Atkinson) TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH 1. Ngày nay, nhu cầu sử dụng năng lượng có thể tái tạo rất lớn. Nhiên liệu hoá thạch cung cấp phần lớn nhu cầu năng lượng ở gia đình của chúng ta là nguồn tài nguyên hạn chế. Cuối cùng chúng cũng sẽ cạn kiệt và là vật ô nhiễm đáng kể. Chẳng hạn như việc đốt than đá và khí đốt thiên nhiên để sản sinh ra điện ở Australia đã gây ra khoảng một nửa lượng cacbon điôxit (CO2) thải ra hàng năm. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ 2. Chúng ta có thể sử dụng mặt trời như một nguồn năng lượng. Năng lượng mặt trời có một số ưu điểm hơn các nguồn năng lượng khác. Trước hết, nó là nguồn năng lượng vô tận và luôn sẵn có. Thứ hai, năng lượng mặt trời là nguồn năng lượng sạch nhất và an toàn nhất trong số tất cả các nhuồn năng lượng. Đặc biệt (không giống như nguồn năng lượng hạt nhân và năng lương hoá thạch) năng lượng mặt trời không gây ra sự ô nhiễm không khí hoặc ô nhiễm nước. Ưu điểm thứ ba của năng lượng mặt trời là nó có thể được sử dụng để tạo khí hyđrô thay thế cho dầu, khí đốt tự nhiên và xăng. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ Tuy nhiên cũng có một số nhược điểm khi chúng ta sử dụng nguồn năng lượng này. Thứ nhất, năng lượng mặt trời khi đến trái đất thì bị phân tán rộng. Hơn nữa năng lượng mặt trời không có sẵn vào ban đêm, lúc mà nhu cầu về điện của chúng ta là cao nhất. Ngoài ra nguồn năng lượng này thay đổi theo lượng mây và thay đổi theo mùa trong năm. Do có sự thay đổi này, chúng ta phải đưa ra một biện pháp để tích trữ năng lượng mặt trời nhận được từ những ngày nắng cho việc sử dụng vào ban đêm, trong thời gian thời tiết âm u và vào mùa đông. ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ E. VOCABULARY asphalt (n) : hắc ín clay (n) : đất sét convert (v) : chuyển đổi, thay đổi crust (n) : lớp vỏ cứng decimate (v) : phá huỷ, tiêu hao define (v) : định nghĩa, xác định rõ deplete (v) : tháo hết, xả hết discard (v) : loại bỏ diversity (n) : sự đa dạng edible (adj) : có thể ăn được eliminate (v) : loại bỏ, gạt ra exhaust (v) : dùng hết, cạn kiệt extract (v) : khai thác, rút ra fertile (adj) : màu mỡ, phì nhiêu fluid (n) : chất lỏng groundwater (n) : nước ngầm gypsum (n) : thạch cao ingenuity (n) : óc sáng tạo, sự thông minh limited (adj) : hạn chế, giới hạn mysterious (adj) : đầy bí ẩn perpetual (adj) : vĩnh viễn, bất diệt phosphate (n) : phốt phát potential (adj) : (thuộc) tiềm năng raw (adj) : thô (chưa qua xử lý, chưa qua chế biến) recycle (v) : tái chế, tái sinh, phục hồi refine(v) : (tinh) lọc renew (v) : làm mới trở lại resemble (v) : giống reuse (v) : sử dụng lại saline (adj) : mặn, có muối scale (n) : phạm vi, quy mô scheme (n) : kế hoạch substitute (n) : người, vật thay thế waterlog (v) : ngập nước wondrous (adj) : tuyệt vời

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • pdfUnit02.pdf
  • pdfUnit01.pdf
  • pdfUnit03.pdf
  • pdfUnit04.pdf
  • pdfUnit05.pdf
  • pdfUnit06.pdf
  • pdfUnit07.pdf
  • pdfUnit08.pdf
  • pdfUnit09.pdf
  • pdfUnit10.pdf
  • pdfUnit11.pdf
  • pdfUnit12.pdf
  • pdfUnit13.pdf
  • pdfUnit14.pdf
  • pdfUnit15.pdf
  • pdfUnit16.pdf
Tài liệu liên quan