The relationship of Human resource training, Fair assessment and employee engagement in Vietnam small and medium-Sized enterprises - Tran Kieu Trang

6. Conclusions Through the literature review and a survey of 138 employees in the SMEs, the article shows the relationship of human resource training, fair assessment and the employee engagement in SMEs. Quantitative analysis results showed that training in SMEs have a negative impact on employee engagement, the fair assessment reduces intention to change jobs, and promotion opportunity has no impact on employee engagement to business. Among the demographic characteristics of employees, the age and seniority have a linear impact on employee engagement, it reduces the employee's intention of job-hopping. From the research results, the author has strongly recommended a number of measures to promote the commitment of employees in SMEs such as: enterprises need to focus on fair assessment, implement reasonably training activities. In addition, businesses also need pay attention to and maintain the group of high age and seniority employees in the enterprise. In addition to these results, this study are limited in choosing the sample includes employees working at least 1 year and signed a formal labor contract with the SMEs in the northern. This is also an opportunity for the author to be able to carry out further studies in the future

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Vu Thanh Tu ANH - Fulbright University in Vietnam, USA Le Xuan BA - Centural Institude for Economic Managerment, Vietnam Hervé B. BOISMERY - University of La Reuinion, France H. Eric BOUTIN - Toulon Var University, France Nguyen Thi DOAN - Vietnam Learning Promotion Association, Vietnam Haasis HANS - Dietrich - Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (isl) Bremen - Germany Le Quoc HOI - National Economic University, Vietnam Nguyen Thi Bich LOAN - Thuong mai University, Vietnam Nguyen Hoang LONG - Thuong mai University, Vietnam Nguyen MAI - Vietnam Economist Association, Vietnam Duong Thi Binh MINH - University of Economics HoChiMinh City, Vietnam Hee Cheon MOON - Korean Trade Research Association, South Korea Bui Xuan NHAN - Thuong mai University, Vietnam Luong Xuan QUY - Vietnam Economicst Association, Vietnam Nguyen Van Song - Vietnam National University of Agriculture Nguyen TAM - California State University, USA Truong Ba THANH - University of Danang, Vietnam Dinh Van THANH - Institude for Trade Research, Vietnam Do Minh THANH - Thuong mai University, Vietnam Le Dinh THANG - University of Québec à Trois Riviéres, Canada Tran Dinh THIEN - Vietnam Institute of Economics, Vietnam Nguyen Quang THUAN - Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, Vietnam Le Nhu TUYEN - Grenoble École de Managment, France Washio TOMOHARU - Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan Zhang YUJIE - Tsinghua University, China THE Members Editor in chief NGUYEN BACH KHOA Deputy Editor in Chief SECTRETARY OF EDITORIAL OFFICE PHAM MINH DAT Editorial SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL Dinh Van SON - Thuong mai University, Vietnam - President Pham Vu LUAN - Thuong mai University, Vietnam - Vice President Nguyen Bach KHOA - Thuong mai University, Vietnam - Deputy President 1. Introduction Up to now Vietnam has 535,000 active SMEs, accounting for 96% of the total country's businesses SMEs account for 50% of the entire firms capital, con- tribute 45% to GDP, 30% of the State budget revenue and generate 55% of the jobs. The number of SMEs has increased sharply in recent years, in the period 2011 - 2015 there were new established 380,000 SMEs, surpassed the target of 350,000 enterprises of Ministry of Planning and Investment. According to the Ministry of Planning and Investment, the target num- ber of active SMEs until 2020 is 700,000, accounting for 98% of all businesses nationwide. The develop- ment achievement of the SME community in recent years has contributed positively to the overall develop- ment of social economic, accordingly the SME com- munity has become one important component of the economy. However, so far our country has signed and partic- ipated in many trade agreements which provide not only opportunities but also a lot of difficulties and challenges to SMEs. At Scientific Conference of Business Administration held on 09.12.2015 in Danang, Prof. Dr. Nguyen Truong Son (University of Economics - Danang University) said that when the Asean Economic Community takes effect, besides the opportunities of accessing to large markets, SMEs in our country will face up with big challenges of the dif- ferences in the level of development and the increase of competitive pressures. The trade agreements such as the Agreement on the Trans-Pacific partnership (TPP), Vietnam - EU free trade agreement (EVFTA) have been predicted to boost exports, connect foreign firms and Vietnam enterprises. However, according to the EU Ambassador in Vietnam, although Vietnam econo- my is a based export economic of ASEAN but most of the business activities in the country is not efficient due to reduced labor productivity. Attracting and maintaining the human resources, strengthening employee engagement and long-term commitment of employees now has become a central issue of SMEs in the current context. However, the understanding and accurate assessment of how to implement preferential treatment to employees in 57 journal of Trade Science journal 4:2 (2016) 57 - 65 JOURNAL OF TRADE SCIENCE ’S JTS Tran Kieu Trang Thuongmai University Email: tktrang.dhtm@gmail.com Keywords: Human resource training, fair assessment, employee engagement, Vietnam SMEs. he paper presents research results of the relationship of human resource training and human resource assessment and employee engagement in Vietnam small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Quantitative research results showed 4 factors affecting the employee engagement in SMEs including employee age, time worked in business, human resource training, and fair assessment. The results showed that the human resources training has no impact on promoting the commitment of employees in SMEs. From the research results, the article strongly proposed a number of recommendations to strengthen the employee engagement in SMEs in the current period. Received: 18th November 2016 Revised: 1st December 2016 SMEs is still limited. A lot of questions arises quite often such as: how to maintain the long-term commit- ment of employees engagement with business? What factors have an impact on employee engagement and at which level?, etc In this article, the author presents the results of research on the relationship of human resources training activities, fair assessment and the employee engagement in SMEs in the current context. 2. Literature reviews According to Nadler (1970), human resource development includes a series of activities, which are implemented in a specific period for the purpose of changing the behavior. Rao (1990) said that human resource development is a process in which employees of the organization are regularly continuously support- ed according to a plan set out in order to: (1) strength- en the working capacity related to the current role or their future expectations; (2) develop and explore the inside potential of the employees; (3) develop organi- zational culture in which focuses on developing the relationship between employees and employers, team- works and collaboration among groups within the organization and (4) be the foundation for the profes- sional operation of the organization and promote the motivation and employee engagement. According to Dessler (2009), human resources development is an activity to increase knowledge, abilities and positive attitude of the people at all levels of an organization. Human resources Development and human resource management are the important activities of the busi- ness with certain differences. Human resources man- agement aimed primarily at maintaining human resources, improving staff efficiency; while human resource development encompasses human resource management, but wider towards raising the quality of human resources, improving the work efficiency of employees in particular and improving the operational efficiency of the organization in general. Some studies of Georgellis and Lange (2007) have shown that some type of human resource training activities have a positive impact on employees' satis- faction. Within the scope of SMEs, Rowden and Ahmad (2000) conducted a survey in Malaysia about the relationship between the actual participation of for- mal training of employees and their satisfaction in their work; the results showed a significantly positive rela- tionship between these two factors. According to Wayne, Shore, and Linden (1997), the opportunity to participate in training and personal development events are considered employees benefits, thus pro- moting them to repay for the organization through their activities in the higher level, the efforts and greater commitment. Barrett and Mayson (2006) suggested that SMEs often have limited resources, so the activi- ties of human resource development is also very limit- ed, so usually there is not much of formal training for employees. Therefore, if the business offers training opportunities and the chance to develop themselves, the employee will appreciate and think that they are responsible for paying off. Some other researchers, such as Benson (2006), Allen, Shore, and Griffeth (2003) gave some direct and indirect evidence to con- firm the correlation between training and the commit- ment of employees to organize. These studies show that participate in training and personal development will increase the awareness of employees about the support from the organization, thereby promoting employees to stick with the organi- zation. In this view, the author has proposed group of the first research hypothesis as follows: H1a: The training activities have a positive impact on the level of long-term commitment to SMEs employees H1b: The training activities have a negative impact on intention to change jobs of SMEs employees. According to Armstrong, Stassen and Schlosser (2010), fairly and accurately evaluate human is also regarded as one of the activities that contribute to human resource development in order to determine the effectiveness and capacity of staff. Through this activ- ity, the organization noted contributions and compe- tencies of staff; thereby motivate and engage employ- ees more with the organization. Human resouce assess- ment allows both organizations and employees to rec- ognize, evaluate and develop activities, encourage employees towards improving their capabilities. So 58 Journal of Trade Science JOURNAL OF TRADE SCIENCE ’S JTS assessment activities must be implemented correctly and fairly. Fairness in staff assessment always goes along with the employee's perception of the assessment was con- ducted by the organization; which focuses on skills and behavior on the job. Job fair assessment significantly affect attitudes and behavior. The studies of Boxall and Purcell (2003); Ikramullah et al (2012) showed that fairness in assessment contributes and also confirms the feelings of staff for the organization; pushs them closer to the organization, reduces the intention of leaving the job and searching other jobs. According Denisi and Pritchard (2006), fair employee evaluation system also helps attract, encourage and improve the practice of staff. Lau and Moser (2008) confirmed that employees who believe they are rated fair will have a higher level of commitment and work efficiency is also better than people who feel unfair in assessment. Whiting and Kline (2007) also showed that the dissatisfaction with the evaluation system of the organization will lead to the intention to abandon the work of employees. The research of Guchait and Cho (2010) also showed that human evaluation is one of the important activities of human resource development; unfair assessment will impact negatively on the intention to abandon the work of employees. From the above reasoning, the author has proposed the second group of research hypothesis as follows: H2a: Fair assessment positively impacts on the level of long-term commitment of staff to SMEs H2b: Fair assessment negatively impact on the intention to abandon the work of employees at SMEs. For workers in general, the value and benefits such as salary, bonus and work environment are key requirements associated with their jobs. Also, one needs is equally important is the promotion opportuni- ties of individuals in organizations. According to Dessler (2009) promotion is understood that the employee is transferred to a higher position in the organization and have more responsibilities. In his study, Rosen (1986) suggested that promotion oppor- tunity is such a stressful competition and promotion is considered the "prize" and motivation for staff com- mitment. The author argued that, better promotion opportunities they have, the more chances of getting wages, benefits and greater prestige commensurate are promoted. Holtom et al (2008) also noted that promo- tion opportunities have role of increasing and strength- ening sense of organization and commitment of employees According Kosteas (2011), promotion opportunity is also considered as a factor that encourages employ- ees to complete their work; is a mechanism to ensure employees will become increasingly important by holding the increasingly higher positions in the organ- ization based on the capacity and efforts of themselves. The research of Kehoe and Wright (2013) found the impact of promotion opportunities on employees' com- mitment to the organization: the potential promotion opportunities timely boost employee commitment and dedication over the organization. Tsai and Wu (2010) also found that promotion opportunities positively impact on employee satisfaction at work and nagative- ly impact on reducing their intention of changing their jobs. According to these studies, the author proposes the third group of research hypothesis as follows: H3a: Promotion opportunities have a positive impact on the level of long-term commitment of employees to SMEs. H3b: Promotion opportunities have a negative impact on reduce the intention of changing jobs at SMEs 3. Reseach models and methods. To test the hypothesis, researchers conducted a regression analysis with three independent variables describing the training, evaluation and development of human resources in the enterprise, including: training, fair assessment and promotion opportunities. Two dependent variables show employee engagement in the enterprise include commitment and intention to change jobs. Along with three independent variables reflect the operational characteristics of human resource development of the business, the study also made fur- ther regression analysis of other factors (variables con- trolled) in order to best reflect the reality. Further 59 journal of Trade Science JOURNAL OF TRADE SCIENCE ’S JTS analysis factors include: age, gender, work time (sen- iority) of employees in the enterprise; uptime of the enterprise (firm age), business type (type), employee size and turnover of the enterprise. The study used the 5 levels scale ratio of Likert (from completely disagree to completely agree) to analyze the impact of the inde- pendent variables (training, fair assessment, promotion opportunities) on the employee engagement in the enterprise. Research model was set up according to Figure 1 as belows: Model of linear regression equation 3 factors affecting employee engagement, represented by the equation: SGB = A0 + A1x1 + A2x2 + A3x3 + + Anxn + Therein: SGB: employee engagement A0,.An: The coefficients X1, X2, ,Xn: Factors affecting employee engage- ment, includes: training, fair assessment, promotion opportunities and elements of employee demographics (gender, age, seniority work) and the characteristic ele- ments of the enterprise (uptime, type, number of employees, turnover). : Standard error This study used a combination of two research methods: references and questionnaires. The author used references to synthesize and analyze secondary materials such as books, textbooks, scientific research projects, articles published in newspapers and maga- zines, the scientific research inside and outside the country. The aim is to collect theory information, to set up theoretical foundations and the research hypothesis About methods of investigation through question- naires, the author has surveyed the staff had working duration at least for 1 year and officially signed a labor contract with the SMEs in the North. List of SMEs were selected randomly from the list of members of the Association of Vietnam SMEs. The questionnaire was designed consisting of 31 questions and was sent to 138 employees under the SMEs via email. Results of the survey obtained 104 votes, mostly employees aged 30 to 40; working duration in the current business from 1 to 5 years. 4. Research result Research carried out 2 models regression analysis to identify the impact of the independent variables and 2 variables of commitment and intention to change jobs. The analytical results show that, Statistical F model of two models is 3.717 and 18.264 respectively, p = 0.000 which confirmed regression analysis model fit the data collected and the existence of variable val- 60 Journal of Trade Science JOURNAL OF TRADE SCIENCE ’S JTS Figure 1: Research model ues analysis. Results of the analysis showed that VIF of 2 models is 2,080, confirming the model does not exist multicollinearity phenomenon. 4.1. Impact of the training, evaluation and human resources development on the commitment of staff R2 = 0.286 shows that this model explains only 28.6% of reality. At the 95% significance level of reli- ability, only independent variable of Training has a sig- nificant impact on the commitment of the staff (sig. <0.05). The remaining factors such as age, gender, sen- iority, company age, type, labor, revenue, equity and evaluation are not statistically significant (sig.> 0.05). Thus, only 1 out of 3 human resources development activities of enterprises significant impacted on the commitment of staff for enterprises The above results show that only one factor has lin- ear relationship or significant impact on commitment of employees in SMEs of Vietnam, which is training with 95%. However, the constant is negative (-), which means that it's opposite directed effect on the depend- ent variable. That means the more employees are trained, the more commitment for enterprises will reduce. From this analysis we conclude that the results of the study is contrary to the H1a hypothesis was given from the beginning. Therefore, we conclude hypothesis H1A is unacceptable. Hypotheses H2A, H3a are also unacceptable because they did not reach the 95% confidence level (sig.> 0.05). Two factors of fair assessment and promotion opportunities have no impact on commitment of the staff of enterprises. 61 journal of Trade Science JOURNAL OF TRADE SCIENCE ’S JTS Table 1: Regression result about the impact of the training and the commitment of staff in SMEs Model R R Square Adjusted R Square) Std. Error of the Estimate 1 0.534a 0.286 0.209 0.88952836 a. Dependent variable: Training, fair assessment, promotion opportunities, company age, type, number of employees, revenue, Age, Gender, Seniority. b. Independent variable: engagement commitment Model Independent variables Unstandardized B Standardized t Sig. Collinearity Statistics Value B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) -1.275 0.529 -2.409 0.018 Age 0.177 0.106 0.211 1.668 0.099 0.481 2.080 Gender 0.168 0.198 0.083 0.850 0.397 0.802 1.248 Seniority 0.018 0.086 0.026 0.215 0.830 0.541 1.848 Company age -0.016 0.070 -0.021 -0.224 0.823 0.882 1.133 Type -0.029 0.067 -0.041 -0.434 0.666 0.874 1.144 Number of employees 0.035 0.098 0.037 0.360 0.720 0.727 1.376 Revenue 0.124 0.084 0.140 1.483 0.142 0.865 1.156 Training -0.255 0.109 -0.255 -2.346 0.021 0.651 1.537 Fair assesment 0.137 0.107 0.137 1.280 0.204 0.667 1.498 Opportunites Promotion -0.031 0.093 -0.031 -0.335 0.738 0.897 1.114 a. Dependent variable: engagement commitment 4.2. Impact of the training, fair assessment and human resources development on the intention of changing jobs of the employees. R2 = 0.663 shows model results explained 66.3% of reality, acceptable level. The analytical results show that the level of these factors include: age, seniority, training, justice has achieved significant impact on dependent variables changing jobs intention of staff, with 95% confidence level (sig . <0.05). The remain- ing factors such as gender, age, firm, kind, labor, rev- enue, opportunity were not statistically significant (sig> 0.05). Thus, among the three activies of human resource training, two activies that affect the intention to change jobs of employee are training and fair assessment. Regarding training factor due to the positive signs (+) of the constant, it should have a positive value for the dependent variable. That means the more trained staff, the increasing intention to leave the business. Regarding fair evaluation factor due to the negative (- ) constant, it should have a negative value for the dependent variable. That means fair assessment will reduce the intention of changing jobs. From this analy- sis we conclude H2b hypothesis is accepted. H3b hypothesis is not accepted because there was no statis- tical significance (sig.> 0,05): promotion opportunity have no significant impact on the intention of changing jobs. Two factors of age and seniority also negatively affect the dependent variables: the intention of chang- ing jobs will decrease when age and seniority of employee are higher. 5. Discussion and recommendations According to the research results there are 4 factors that significantly impact commitment of employees in 62 Journal of Trade Science JOURNAL OF TRADE SCIENCE ’S JTS Table 2: Regression result about the impact of the training and the intention of changing job of staff in SMEs SMEs include: age, seniority, training and fair assess- ment. 6 remaining factors, including gender, age, com- pany, type of business, number of employees, revenue and business opportunities for promotion do not have a significant impact. Among the human resources development activities in general training and fair assessment have positive impact on reducing intention of job jumping of employees; However, regression analysis results indicate it's insufficient reliability to find that these elements have a positive impact on commitment of the staff. For promotion opportunities, the research results show that this factor is absolutely no impact on commitment or intention of employees to change jobs in SMEs Thus, we can see that in Vietnam SMEs training activities reduce the commitment, as well as increased job-hopping intention of employees. The reason of this situation can be said that due to employees in Vietnam SMEs are often young people, they tend to seek job opportunities in other better and bigger companies. This is one of the reasons why Vietnam SMEs less invest in human resource training activities. In contrast with the training factor, fair assessment, though no impact on commitment but intend to con- tribute to the reduction of job-hopping intention of employees. This result is consistent with studies of Ikramillah et al (2012), said that a fair assessment helps strengthen employee's perceptions and reduce idea of abandon jobs to look for another job. Fair assessment activity itself is not a solution to promote employees' commitment but intends to contribute reduce job hopping, create personnel stability for busi- ness. With such a meaningful, fair assessment needs to be more focused by business in human resources development activities. The previous studies as of Kehoe and Wright (2013) showed promotion opportunities positively affect employees' commitment to corporate. However, in this study, the promotion opportunities have negligi- ble impact on commitment or intention of employees to change jobs. However, the results obtained from this study completely deny the impact of promotion oppor- tunities to the commitment and the intention to job- hopping of employee. This can be interpreted that commitment or intention to change jobs of employee is affected by other factors except for promotion oppor- tunities; or positions in the SME promotion is not real- ly appealing to employees, that position does not bring the benefits like the employees' expectations (such as higher wages, other benefits ...), or perhaps employees are looking forward to a different working environ- ment. In addition, the findings showed that age and sen- iority of the employee also have an inverse proportion with the intention of job-hopping of employee, but does not contribute significantly to their commitment. This can be explained in terms of psychology, the employee at high age wants a stable job and do not intend to change jobs. Besides, a long working dura- tion in an organization is a stable condition for work because employees become familiar with the working environment. Because of this reason we can say that the intention of changing jobs will decrease when age and seniority of employee are higher. Thus, the study showed that training can reduce the commitment of employees and increase the intention of job-hopping; fairness in the assessment does not have an impact on commitment but reduces job-hop- ping; promotion opportunitiy does not have an impact on commitment as well as the intention of job-hop- ping. On the results of testing the hypothesis, the hypothesis H1A, H1B contrast to the initial hypothe- sis, the hypothesis H2b consistent with research find- ings, hypotheses H2A, H3a and H3b are not proven to be true. Based on the results of research and discussion above, the author would like to strongly suggest some solutions to increase employee engagement in SMEs as follows: First, SMEs should focus on staff training activities on meeting the needs and demands of the job. Although study results show that training increases the intention of job-hpping, we cannot deny the essential role of training in enterprises in general and SMEs in particular. Therefore, SMEs should not invest too 63 journal of Trade Science JOURNAL OF TRADE SCIENCE ’S JTS much in training, but should focus on the content of training and appropriate methods of training to con- tribute to improve the skills and knowledge for staff members to meet the requirements of the job. For this, business managers need to analyze the work in a spe- cific way to determine the requirements and standards of work in the present to meet the changing needs of the business environment in the future, promote advan- tages of training methods such as guiding, mentoring, using longtime employees who have a lot of experi- ence to train new employees in order to improve the efficiency of training activities. Second, SMEs need to focus on fair assessment. According to general psychology, employees always want their contributions, dedication to the organiza- tion to be fairly assessed by the organization. The human resources assessment in the enterprise is essential because it allows both managers and employees to recognize the advantages and limita- tions of the staff to find the training orientation and develop the capacity of staff. Although fair assess- ment does not increase the commitment of the staff, it intends to contribute to reducing the employee's job- hopping which help maintain stability and human resources, especially the high quality employees of the business. To ensure the fair assessment, business managers need to clearly define evaluation objec- tives, select appropriate evaluation methods, using both qualitative and quantitative criteria, discuss assessment results openly and transparently. Third, it's necessary to combine several activities to strengthen commitment of employees in the enterprise. To increase the commitment of staff to the enterprise, the enterprise firstly should identify that the role of human resources development activities is not a solu- tion to promote commitment of the staff of enterprises. Therefore, they should think about the appropriate ori- entation, policies and activities to enhance employee engagement to business. In addition, enterprises should actively explore the needs and aspirations of the employees to take practical measures and effectively meet the aspirations of employees, encourage employ- ees to get on with the business. For this, business man- agers need to constantly improve the knowledge, skills and management capability to get more efficient in human resources management. Fourth, SMEs need to perform synchronously policies to stabilize and maintain the aging workforce and seniority in the enterprise. The general trend is the older employees often prefer stability, do not want to change jobs, and the senior staff in the enterprise tend to change jobs less than the new graduated employees due to the advantages of seniority such as the familiar working environment, longtime contribu- tion, steady job ... Thus, the group of high age and seniority HR prefer stablity and less think about job- hopping. Enterprises need to adopt policies of more concerned about this staff, consider older workers and seniority as a core workforce of the business. Appropriate welfare policies, strengthening exchanges and social activities ... may contribute to the maintenance of human resources with the high age and seniority in the enterprise. 6. Conclusions Through the literature review and a survey of 138 employees in the SMEs, the article shows the relation- ship of human resource training, fair assessment and the employee engagement in SMEs. Quantitative analysis results showed that training in SMEs have a negative impact on employee engagement, the fair assessment reduces intention to change jobs, and pro- motion opportunity has no impact on employee engagement to business. Among the demographic characteristics of employees, the age and seniority have a linear impact on employee engagement, it reduces the employee's intention of job-hopping. From the research results, the author has strongly recom- mended a number of measures to promote the commit- ment of employees in SMEs such as: enterprises need to focus on fair assessment, implement reasonably training activities. In addition, businesses also need pay attention to and maintain the group of high age and seniority employees in the enterprise. In addition to these results, this study are limited in choosing the sample includes employees working at least 1 year and signed a formal labor contract with the 64 Journal of Trade Science JOURNAL OF TRADE SCIENCE ’S JTS SMEs in the northern. This is also an opportunity for the author to be able to carry out further studies in the future. References: 1. Benson G. S. (2006), Employee Development, Commitment and Intention to Turnover: A Test of 'Employability' Policies in Action, Human Resource Management Journal, 16(2), 173 - 192. 2. Dessler G. (2009), Human resource manage- ment, Pearson Prentice Hall. 3. Guchait P., Cho S. (2010), The impact of human resource management practices on intention to leave of employees in the service industry in India: the medi- ating role of organizational commitment, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(8), 1228-1247. 4. Ikramullah M., Shah B., Khan S., Hassan F. S. U., Zaman T. (2012), Purposes of performance appraisal system: A perceptual Sstudy of Civil servants in district dera Ismail Khan Pakistan, International Journal of Business and Management, 7(3), 142-151. 5. Kehoe R. R., Wright P. M. (2013), The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees' attitudes and behaviors, Journal of Management, 39(2), 366-391. Summary Baøi vieát trình baøy keát quaû nghieân cöùu moái quan heä giöõa hoaït ñoäng ñaøo taïo vaø phaùt trieån nhaân löïc, ñaùnh giaù nhaân löïc ñeán söï gaén boù cuûa nhaân vieân trong caùc doanh nghieäp nhoû vaø vöøa (DNNVV) Vieät Nam. Keát quaû nghieân cöùu ñònh löôïng cho thaáy coù 4 yeáu toá taùc ñoäng ñeán söï gaén boù cuûa nhaân vieân trong DNNVV bao goàm ñoä tuoåi nhaân vieân, thôøi gian laøm vieäc taïi doanh nghieäp, coâng taùc ñaøo taïo vaø phaùt trieån nhaân löïc, söï ñaùnh giaù coâng baèng nhaân vieân. Keát quaû cho thaáy coâng taùc ñaøo taïo vaø phaùt trieån nhaân löïc khoâng coù taùc ñoäng thuùc ñaåy cam keát gaén boù cuûa nhaân vieân trong caùc DNNVV. Töø keát quaû nghieân cöùu, baøi vieát maïnh daïn ñeà xuaát moät soá kieán nghò nhaèm taêng cöôøng söï gaén boù cuûa nhaân vieân ñoái vôùi DNNVV trong giai ñoaïn hieän nay. 65 journal of Trade Science JOURNAL OF TRADE SCIENCE ’S JTS TRAN KIEU TRANG 1. Personal Profile: - Name: TRAN Kieu Trang - Date of birth: 29th October 1978 - Title: PhD - Workplace: University of Commerce - Position: Vice Dean, Faculty of International Training 2. Major research directions: SMEs, Human Ressources Management, Project Management, enterpreneurship 3. Publications the author has published his works: - Trade Science Review, - Review of Trade - Economics and Forecast Review, - Journal of Green Knowledge, - Journal of Economics and Developpement

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