Quản trị mạng - Chapter 7: Ripv2

It is always best to begin with the basics: 1. Make sure all of the links (interfaces) are up and operational. 2. Check the cabling. 3. Check to make sure you have the correct IP address and subnet mask on each interface. 4. Remove any unnecessary configuration commands that are no longer necessary or have been replaced by other commands

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1Chapter 7: RIPv2 CCNA Exploration version 4.0 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 2 Overview Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 3 RIPv1 Limitations Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 4 Lab Topology Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 5 VLSM Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 6 Lab Topology: Private Address Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 7 Lab Topology: Loopback interface Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 8 RIPv1 Topology Limitations • Static Routes and Null Interfaces Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 9 Null interface • The address space represented by the static summary route 192.168.0.0/16 does not actually exist. • In order to simulate this static route, we use a null interface as the exit interface. • You do not need to enter any commands to create or configure the null interface. It is always up but does not forward or receive traffic. Traffic sent to the null interface is discarded. • For our purposes, the null interface will serve as the exit interface for our static route. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 10 Extra : Null interface • The Cisco IOS software supports a "null" interface. This pseudo-interface functions similarly to the null devices available on most operating systems. • This interface is always up and can never forward or receive traffic; encapsulation always fails. The only interface configuration command that you can specify for the null interface is no ip unreachables. • The null interface provides an alternative method of filtering traffic. You can avoid the overhead involved with using access lists by directing undesired network traffic to the null interface. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 11 Extra: Using discard routes Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 12 RIPv1 Topology Limitations • Verifying and Testing Connectivity Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 13 RIPv1 Topology Limitations • Verifying and Testing Connectivity Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 14 Lab 7.1.2.3: RIPv1 Topology Limitations • Use the Packet Tracer Activity to practice your router configuration skills, including RIPv1 configurations. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 15 RIPv1: Discontiguous Networks • RIPv1 is a classful routing protocol. – It does not include the subnet masks in its routing updates. – Therefore, RIPv1 cannot support discontiguous networks, VLSM, or Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) supernets. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 16 RIPv1: Discontiguous Networks • Because the subnet mask is not included in the update, RIPv1 and other classful routing protocols must summarize networks at major network boundaries. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 17 RIPv1: Discontiguous Networks Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 18 RIPv1: Discontiguous Networks Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 19 RIPv1: Discontiguous Networks Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 20 RIPv1: No VLSM Support Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 21 RIPv1: No CIDR support Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 22 RIPv1: No CIDR support Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 23 Lab 7.1.5.2: RIPv1-No CIDR support • Use the Packet Tracer Activity in Simulation mode to see that updates are not sent across classful network boundaries with RIPv1. • In RealTime mode, verify non-convergence with the – show ip route – ping – debug ip rip. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 24 Configuring RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 25 Enabling and Verifying RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 26 Extra: Next Hop Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 27 Enabling and Verifying RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 28 Enabling and Verifying RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 29 Enabling and Verifying RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 30 Auto-summary and RIPv2 • By default, RIPv2 automatically summarizes networks at major network boundaries, just like RIPv1. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 31 Auto-summary and RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 32 Auto-summary and RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 33 Auto-summary and RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 34 Disabling Auto-summay in RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 35 Verifying RIPv2 Updates Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 36 Verifying RIPv2 Updates Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 37 Lab 7.2.4.2: Verifying RIPv2 Updates • Use the Packet Tracer Activity to configure RIPv2, disable automatic summarization, and verify your configurations. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 38 Compatibility with RIP v1 NewYork interface fastethernet0/0 ip address 192.168.50.129 255.255.255.192 ip rip send version 1 ip rip receive version 1 interface fastethernet0/1 ip address 172.25.150.193 255.255.255.240 ip rip send version 1 2 interface fastethernet0/2 ip address 172.25.150.225 225.255.255.240 router rip version 2 network 172.25.0.0 network 192.168.50.0 • Interface FastEthernet0/0 is configured to send and receive RIP v1 updates. • FastEthernet0/1 is configured to send both version 1 and 2 updates. • FastEthernet0/2 has no special configuration and therefore sends and receives version 2 by default. RIPv2 interface fastethernet0/0 ip rip send version {1 | 2} ip rip receive version {1 | 2} Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 39 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 40 Adding a default Routes to RIPv2 e0 ISP SantaCruz2SantaCruz1 192.168.4.20/30 172.30.1.0/24 Internet s0 s0 s0 s1 172.30.100.0/24 e0 192.168.4.24/30 .21 .22 .25 .26 10.0.0.0/8 e0.1 .1.1 Lo0 Lo0 172.30.110.0/24172.30.2.0/24 .1 .1 .1 static route to 207.0.0.0/8 207.0.0.0/16 207.1.0.0/16 207.2.0.0/16 207.3.0.0/16 etc. ` 172.30.200.16/28 172.30.200.32/28 Lo1 Lo2 ISP router rip redistribute static network 10.0.0.0 network 192.168.4.0 version 2 no auto-summary default-information originate ip route 207.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 null0 ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.2 etherenet0 router rip redistribute static Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 41 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 42 VLSM and CIDR Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 43 RIPv2 and VLSM Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 44 RIPv2 and CIDR • One of the goals of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) as stated by RFC 1519 is "to provide a mechanism for the aggregation of routing information." This goal includes the concept of supernetting. • A supernet is a block of contiguous classful networks that is addressed as a single network. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 45 RIPv2 and CIDR Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 46 Verifying and Troubleshooting RIPv2 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 47 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 48 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands • It is always best to begin with the basics: 1. Make sure all of the links (interfaces) are up and operational. 2. Check the cabling. 3. Check to make sure you have the correct IP address and subnet mask on each interface. 4. Remove any unnecessary configuration commands that are no longer necessary or have been replaced by other commands. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 49 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands Router#show ip route 172.30.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 2 masks C 172.30.200.32/28 is directly connected, Loopback2 C 172.30.200.16/28 is directly connected, Loopback1 R 172.30.2.0/24 [120/2] via 192.168.4.21, 00:00:21, Serial0 R 172.30.1.0/24 [120/2] via 192.168.4.21, 00:00:21, Serial0 C 172.30.100.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0 C 172.30.110.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0 192.168.4.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets R 192.168.4.24 [120/1] via 192.168.4.21, 00:00:21, Serial0 C 192.168.4.20 is directly connected, Serial0 R 10.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 192.168.4.21, 00:00:21, Serial0 R 207.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 192.168.4.21, 00:00:21, Serial0 Supernet, classless routing protcols will route supernets (CIDR) Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 50 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 51 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 52 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands Router#debug ip rip RIP protocol debugging is on Router#01:23:34: RIP: received v2 update from 192.168.4.22 on Serial1 01:23:34: 172.30.100.0/24 -> 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops 01:23:34: 172.30.110.0/24 -> 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops Router# 01:23:38: RIP: received v2 update from 192.168.4.26 on Serial0 01:23:38: 172.30.2.0/24 -> 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops 01:23:38: 172.30.1.0/24 -> 0.0.0.0 in 1 hops Router# 01:24:31: RIP: sending v2 update to 224.0.0.9 via Ethernet0 (10.0.0.1) 01:24:31: 172.30.2.0/24 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0 01:24:31: 172.30.1.0/24 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0 01:24:31: 172.30.100.0/24 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0 01:24:31: 172.30.110.0/24 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 2, tag 0 01:24:31: 192.168.4.24/30 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0 01:24:31: 192.168.4.20/30 -> 0.0.0.0, metric 1, tag 0 multicast Includes mask Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 53 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 54 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 55 Verification and Troubleshooting Commands Router# show ip rip database 172.19.0.0/16 auto-summary 172.19.64.0/24 directly connected, Ethernet0 172.19.65.0/24 [1] via 172.19.70.36, 00:00:17, Serial1 [2] via 172.19.67.38, 00:00:25, Serial0 172.19.67.0/24 directly connected, Serial0 172.19.67.38/32 directly connected, Serial0 172.19.70.0/24 directly connected, Serial1 172.19.86.0/24[1] via 172.19.67.38, 00:00:25, Serial0 [1] via 172.19.70.36, 00:00:17, Serial1 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 56 Common RIPv2 issues • The network statement does 2 things: 1. It enables the routing protocol to send and receive updates on any local interfaces that belong to that network. 2. It includes that network in its routing updates to its neighboring routers. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 57 Authentication Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 58 Configuring authentication Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 59 Configuring authentication Router(config)#key chain Romeo Router(config-keychain)#key 1 Router(config-keychain-key)#key-string Juliet • The password must be the same on both routers (Juliet), but the name of the key (Romeo) can be different. Router(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 Router(config-if)#ip rip authentication key-chain Romeo (option) Router(config-if)#ip rip authentication mode md5 Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 60 Configuring authentication Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 61 Clear Text Authentication Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 62 MD5 Authentication RIPv2 redistribution • Planning Redistribution • Locate the boundary router between two routing processes. • Determine which routing process is the core or backbone process • Determine which routing process is the edge or migration process • Select a method for injecting the required edge protocol routes into the core. 63Học viện mạng Bach Khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com Configuring Redistribution into RIP • Use this command to redistribute routes into RIP: – Router(config-router)# redistribute protocol [process-id] [match route-type] [metric metric-value] [route-map map-tag] 64 RtrA(config)# router rip RtrA(config-router)# redistribute ospf ? Process ID RtrA(config-router)# redistribute ospf 1 ? match Redistribution of OSPF routes metric Metric for redistributed routes route-map Route map reference • Default metric is infinity. The redistribute command parameters for RIP 65 Parameter Description protocol Source protocol from which routes are being redistributed. process-id This value is an AS number. For OSPF, this value is an OSPF process ID. match route-type (Optional) Command parameter used for redistributing OSPF routes into another routing protocol. For OSPF, the criterion by which OSPF routes are redistributed into other routing domains. metric metric-value (Optional) Parameter used to specify the RIP seed metric for the redistributed route. When you are redistributing into RIP, this value is not specified and no value is specified using the default-metric router configuration command, then the default metric is 0, which is interpreted as infinity, and routes will not be redistributed. The metric for RIP is the hop count. route-map map-tag (Optional) Identifier of a configured route map to be interrogated to filter the importation of routes from this source routing protocol to the current routing protocol. Học viện mạng Cisco Bách Khoa - Website: www.ciscobachkhoa.com 66 Summary

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