Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản nhất

Ex:What is money used for? ---> It is used tobuy or sell goods. ---> It is used forbuying or selling goods.

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øng haønh ñoäng ñang laøm Ex: You should stop smoking. (Baïn neân boû huùt thuoác.) Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 23 - try + to V: coá gaéng Ex: He tries to get ten marks. (Anh ta coá gaéng ñaït möôøi ñieåm.) - try + V-ing: thöû Ex: She tried writing with her left hand. (Coâ ta thöû vieát baèng tay traùi.) - need + to V: caàn (nghóa chuû ñoäng) Ex: They need to work harder. (Hoï caàn laøm vieäc chaêm chæ hôn.) - need + V-ing: caàn ñöôïc (nghóa bò ñoäng) Ex: This room needs cleaning. (Caên phoøng naøy caàn lau chuøi.) - remember/forget + to V: nhôù/queân laøm ñieàu gì (chöa xaûy ra) Ex: Remember to post the letter when you get to the post office. (Nhôù gôûi laù thö khi baïn ñeán böu ñieän.) - remember/forget + V-ing: nhôù/queân ñaõ laøm ñieàu gì (ñaõ xaûy ra) Ex: I will never forget seeing you here last year. (Toâi seõ khoâng bao giôø queân gaëp baïn taïi ñaây vaøo naêm roài.) - regret + to V: tieác phaûi laøm ñieàu gì (haønh ñoäng saép xaûy ra) Ex: I regret to tell you that you failed the exam. (Toâi laáy laøm tieác baùo cho anh hay anh ñaõ thi hoûng.) - regret + V-ing: tieác ñaõ laøm ñieàu gì (haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra) Ex: She regretted going to New York for holiday. (Coâ aáy tieác ñaõ ñi nghæ ôû New York.) * LÖU YÙ: Caáu truùc S + V + O + TO V vaø S + LET/MAKE + O + V Ex: I permit you to go out tonight. They let me visit my parents. Make haste slowly Duïc toác baát ñaït Baøi 10: TÖØ LOAÏI I- Danh töø: 1) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc: 1.1 Hình thöùc soá ít: a/an + N - “a” ñöùng tröôùc danh töø soá ít baét ñaàu baèng moät phuï aâm. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 24 Ex: a book, a pen, … - “an” ñöùng tröôùc danh töø soá ít baét ñaàu baèng moät nguyeân aâm. Ex: an apple, an orange, an egg, an umbrella, an island, … 1.2 Hình thöùc soá nhieàu: 1.2.1 Hôïp quy taéc: Ns/es Ex: books, pens, boxes 1.2.2 Baát quy taéc: Soá ít Soá nhieàu Soá ít Soá nhieàu a man men a foot feet a woman women a tooth teeth a child children a bacterium bacteria a person people a curriculum curricula a mouse mice a datum data a louse lice a criterion criteria a goose geese a phenomenon phenomena 1.2.3 Danh töø luoân coù hình thöùc vaø mang nghóa soá nhieàu: clothes, scissors, spectacles, shorts, pants, jeans, trousers, pyjamas, binoculars, belongings, … 1.2.4 Danh töø soá ít vaø soá nhieàu coù hình thöùc gioáng nhau: sheep, deer, aircraft, craft, fish, … 1.2.5 Danh töø luoân mang nghóa soá nhieàu: (xem Baøi 3, II, 4) police, cattle, people, … 1.2.6 Danh töø coù hình thöùc soá nhieàu nhöng mang nghóa soá ít: news, mathematics, the United States, … (xem Baøi 3, I, 2) 2) Danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: Laø nhöõng thöù ta khoâng theå ñeám ñöôïc tröïc tieáp (moät, hai, ba, …) nhö milk, water, rice, sugar, butter, salt, bread, news, information, advice, luggage, health, knowledge, equipment, iron, paper, glass, … (one milk, two milk) * Chuù yù: - Khoâng coù hình thöùc soá nhieàu (s/es) - Khoâng duøng vôùi a/an/one/two… - Coù theå ñi vôùi töø chæ dôn vò ñònh löôïng + of: a bottle of milk, two litters of water, a loaf of bread, three sheets of paper, four pieces of chalk, a bar of chocolate, a gallon of petrol, … 3) Danh töø vöøa ñeám ñöôïc vöøa khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 25 Moät soá danh töø trong tröôøng hôïp naøy laø ñeám ñöôïc nhöng trong tröôøng hôïp khaùc laïi khoâng ñeám ñöôïc. Ñeám ñöôïc Khoâng ñeám ñöôïc a glass (moät caùi li) glass (thuûy tinh) two papers (hai tôø baùo) paper (giaáy) three coffees (ba taùch caø pheâ) coffee (caø pheâ) two sugars (hai muoãng ñöông) sugar (ñöôøng) II- Tính töø: 2) Vò trí cuûa tính töø: 6.1 Tröôùc danh töø: Ex: She is a beautiful girl. 6.2 Sau danh töø: g) Chæ söï ño löôøng, tuoåi taùc: Ex: This table is two meters long. He’s twenty years old. h) Tính töø coù tieáp ñaàu ngöõ “a”: asleep (ñang nguû), ablaze (buøng chaùy), alight (böøng saùng), awake (thöùc), alive (coøn soáng), alike (gioáng nhau), afloat (noåi), … Ex: I saw my son asleep on the floor. i) Tính töø boå ngöõ cho tuùc töø: Ex: We should keep our room clean. 6.3 Sau Linking verbs: be, become, feel, look, taste, sound, smell, seem, get, turn, appear Ex: It becomes hot today. 6.4 Sau ñaïi töø baát ñònh: something, someone/body, anything, anyone/body, everything, everyone/body, nothing, no one, nobody Ex: Do you have anything important to tell me? 6.5 Sau traïng töø: Ex: Your story is very interesting. 3) Traät töï cuûa caùc tính töø tröôùc danh töø: Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 26 TÍNH TÖØ YÙ KIEÁN SÖÏ THAÄT Kích thöôùc Tuoåi Hình daïng Maøu saéc Quoác tòch/nôi choán Chaát lieäu nice, good, bad, ugly, beautiful big, small, tall old, young fat, thin, round white, black Vietnamese, English, French wooden, golden Ex: A beautiful tall thin Vietnamese girl is standing over there. 4) Tính töø duøng nhö danh töø: (xem theâm Baøi 3, II, 5) THE + ADJ ---> NOUN the poor, the rich, the blind, the deaf, the old, the handicapped, the sick, the strong, the weak, the hungry, the disadvantaged, the unemployed, the disabled, the living, the dead, the young, the middle-aged Ex: The rich should help the poor. 5) Phaân töø duøng nhö tính töø: Tính töø taän cuøng baèng –ING –ED –ING –ED amazing amazed exciting excited amusing amused frightening frightened boring bored interesting interested confusing confused pleasing pleased depressing depressed relaxing relaxed deserving deserved satisfying satisfied disappointing disappointed shocking shocked distinguishing distinguished surprising surprised encouraging encouraged tiring tired 1.1 Hình thöùc hieän taïi phaân töø (-ING): Dieãn taû nhaän thöùc cuûa ngöôøi noùi veà ngöôøi/vieäc gì ñoù. Ex: That film is interesting. (Boä phim ñoù hay.) (Ngöôøi xem nhaän thaáy boä phim hay.) He is boring. He always talks about the same things. (Haén ta chaùn thaät. Haén luoân baøn veà nhöõng thöù gioáng nhau.) (Ngöôøi nghe nhaän thaáy haén ta chaùn.) 1.2 Hình thöùc quaù khöù phaân töø (-ED): Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 27 Dieãn taû caûm giaùc cuûa ngöôøi noùi do ngöôøi/vieäc gì ñoù ñem laïi. Ex: I am confused about the question. (Toâi bò boái roái veà caâu hoûi.) (Caâu hoûi laøm toâi boái roái.) III- Traïng töø: 1) Phaân loaïi traïng töø: 4.1 Traïng töø chæ theå caùch: - Cho ta bieát moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc thöïc hieän nhö theá naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi HOW? - Caùch thaønh laäp: ADJ + LY (moät caùch …) angrily giaän giöõ anxiously lo laéng badly dôû, teä beautifully (haùt/muùa) hay brightly töôi saùng carefully caån thaän cleverly kheùo leùo, khoân colorfully saëc sôõ continuously lieân tieáp easily deã daøng fluently troâi chaûy happily haïnh phuùc heavily naëng neà loudly aàm æ, inh oûi nervously hoài hoäp peacefully hoaø bình politely lòch söï, leã pheùp quickly nhanh nheïn quietly yeân tónh rapidly nhanh choùng safely an toaøn sensibly hôïp lyù seriously nghieâm tuùc silently im laëng skillfully kheùo tay slowly chaäm chaïp specially ñaëc bieät stupidly ngu ngoác successfully thaønh coâng warmly aám aùp * LÖU YÙ: - fast (nhanh), early (sôùm), late (treã), hard (chaêm chæ) vöøa laø tính töø vöøa laø traïng töø. Tính töø Traïng töø Jack is a very fast runner. Jack can run very fast. Ann is hard worker. Ann works hard. (hardly) The train was late. I got up late this morning. - Phaân bieät: Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 28 late (treã) lately (gaàn ñaây) (= recently) You come home late today. He hasn’t been to the cinema lately. (Hoâm nay con veà treã.) (Gaàn ñaây anh ta khoâng ñi xem phim.) hard (chaêm chæ) hardly (haàu nhö khoâng) I’ve worked very hard. She’s hardly got any money left. (Toâi laøm vieäc raát chaêm.) (Coâ aáy haàu nhö khoâng coøn tieàn.) - Moät soá tính töø taän cuøng –LY: friendly (thaân thieän), lovely (deã thöông), lively (soáng ñoäng), ugly (xaáu xí), silly (ngôù ngaån). Nhöõng töø naøy khoâng phaûi laø traïng töø, neân ta duøng “in a ……way/manner” thay cho traïng töø. Ex: She spoke to me in a friendly way/manner. (Coâ ta noùi chuyeän vôùi toâi moät caùch thaân thieän.) 4.2 Traïng töø chæ thôøi gian: Cho bieát söï vieäc xaûy ra luùc naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi WHEN? now, today, yesterday, tomorrow, last year, then, still, no longer, already, immediately, just, soon, finally, recently, lately, at once, 2 months later/after, … Ex: I’m leaving for Hanoi tomorrow. 4.3 Traïng töø chæ nôi choán: Cho bieát söï vieäc xaûy ra ôû ñaâu ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi WHERE? here, there, somewhere, outside, inside, upstairs, downstairs, everywhere, in Paris, at the supermarket, … Ex: Tom is standing there. 4.4 Traïng töø chæ söï thöôøng xuyeân: Cho bieát haønh ñoäng xaûy ra thöôøng xuyeân nhö theá naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi HOW OFTEN? never, rarely, seldom, sometimes, usually, frequently, occasionally, often, always, once/twice a week, every day, daily, weekly, monthly, … Ex: I often get up at 5 in the morning. 4.5 Traïng töø chæ möùc ñoä: Cho bieát haønh ñoäng, tính chaát cuûa söï vieäc dieãn ra ñeán möùc naøo. very, too, so, quite, rather, extremely, absolutely, terribly, completely, really, pretty, fairly, entirely, hardly, scarcely, somewhat, enough,… Ex: I come here quite often. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 29 2) Vò trí cuûa traïng töø: 2.1 Ñaàu caâu: Ex: Where are you going? 2.2 Giöõa caâu: 2.2.1 Tröôùc ñoäng töø thöôøng: Ex: They often play football after class. 2.2.2 Sau ñoäng töø TO BE, trôï ñoäng töø hoaëc ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát: Ex: Our teacher is still sick. She doesn’t often go with him. He can seldom find time for reading. 2.3 Cuoái caâu: Ex: You sang that song well. 3) Traät töï cuûa caùc traïng töø: Traät töï cuûa caùc traïng töø trong caâu thöôøng nhö sau: Nôi choán Möùc ñoä Theå caùch Thöôøng xuyeân Thôøi gian He walked to the church very slowly twice last Sunday. * Chuù yù: Traät töï treân coù theå thay ñoåi tuyø vaøo muïc ñích nhaán maïnh cuûa ngöôøi noùi/vieát. 4) Chöùc naêng cô baûn cuûa traïng töø: Boå nghóa cho Ví duï* 1) Ñoäng töø They danced beautifully. 2) Tính töø She is very lovely. 3) Traïng töø khaùc He studied extremely hard. 4) Caû caâu Fortunately, he was not injured in that accident. * Phaàn in ñaäm, gaïch döôùi boå nghóa cho phaàn in nghieâng. IV- Giôùi töø: 1) Phaân loaïi giôùi töø: 1.1 Giôùi töø chæ nôi choán: IN, ON, AT a) IN (trong): ñöôïc duøng - Chæ moät ngöôøi hoaëc vaät ôû trong moät nôi naøo ñoù. in a box / room / building / park / garden / bag / pocket / kitchen / cinema / restaurant / book / lesson / newspaper / picture / pool / sea / river/ water / sky / world / queue / row / line … Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 30 Ex: My mother is cooking in the kitchen. - Vôùi phöông tieän xe hôi, taxi hoaëc ñöôøng phoá. in a car / taxi, in/on the street Ex: Peter arrived at the party in a taxi. They live in Hung Vuong Street. - Vôùi danh töø khoâng coù maïo töø ñeå dieãn taû moät ngöôøi ñang ôû taïi ñoù. in bed / hospital / prison Ex: Tom hasn’t got up yet. He’s still in bed. - Tröôùc caùc ñaát nöôùc, thaønh phoá, phöông höôùng. in Vietnam / England / France / Hanoi / London / Paris / the east / west / south / north Ex: Ho Chi Minh City is in the south of Vietnam. - Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán. in the front/back of (a car/room/theater …), in the middle of (the room …) Ex: I was in the back of the car when the accident happened. There’s a computer in the middle of the room. b) ON (treân): ñöôïc duøng - Chæ vò trí beân treân vaø tieáp xuùc vôùi beà maët cuûa moät vaät gì ñoù. on the door / floor / wall / ceiling / river / beach / coast … on/in the street, on a page Ex: I sat on the beach. They live on Wall Street. The picture you’re looking for is on page 7. - Vôùi phöông tieän ñi laïi coâng coäng hoaëc caù nhaân (xe ñaïp, honda). on a bus/train/ship/plane/bycicle/motorbike/horse Ex: There were too many people on the bus. Mary passed me on her bycicle. - Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán. on the right / left, on horseback, on the way to (school …) on the back/front of (the envelope/paper …) on top of (the wardrobe …) on/at the corner of a street Ex: In Britain people drive on the left. Write your name on the front of the envelope. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 31 c) AT (ôû): ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå dieãn taû moät vò trí ñöôïc xaùc ñònh trong khoâng gian hoaëc soá nhaø. at the door / bus stop / traffic lights / party / meeting / desk … at 69 Tran Hung Dao Street Ex: Someone is standing at the door. She lives at 69 Tran Hung Dao Street. - Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán. at home / school / college / university / work … at the top/bottom of (the page …) at the end of (the street …) at the front/back of (the line …) at/on the corner of the street Ex: Peter’s house is at the end of the street. The garden is at the back of the building. 1.2 Giôùi töø chæ thôøi gian: IN, ON, AT a) IN: ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå chæ buoåi trong ngaøy noùi chung, thaùng, naêm, muøa, thaäp nieân, theá kyû, thieân nieân kyû. in the morning / afternoon / evening in February, in 1999 in (the) spring / summer / autumn / winter in the 1990s, in the 21st century, in the 3rd millennium - Trong moät soá cuïm töø ñeå chæ moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong töông lai. in a few minutes, in an hour, in a day / week / month … Ex: Daisy has gone away. She’ll be back in a week. (Daisy ñaõ ñi khoûi. Coâ aáy seõ trôû veà trong moät tuaàn.) - Trong cuïm töø in the end vôùi nghóa cuoái cuøng (finally, at last), in time vôùi nghóa kòp luùc. Ex: Peter got very angry. In the end, he walked out of the room. (Peter raát giaän. Cuoái cuøng, noù ra khoûi phoøng.) Will you be home in time for dinner? (Baïn seõ veà nhaø kòp giôø aên toái?) * Chuù yù: on time (ñuùng giôø) b) ON: ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå chæ thöù trong tuaàn, ngaøy trong thaùng. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 32 on Monday, on 5th March, on this/that day Ex: I was born on 27th June, 1983. - Ñeå chæ buoåi trong ngaøy cuï theå hoaëc moät ngaøy cuï theå. on Friday morning / Christmas Day / New Year’s Day / my birthday Ex: See you on Friday morning. c) AT: ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå chæ thôøi gian, caùc böõa aên trong ngaøy. at 5 a.m., at sunrise / sunset / dawn / noon / twilight / night / midnight at breakfast / lunch / dinner / supper Ex: I get up at 5 o’clock every morning. - Ñeå chæ moät dòp leã hoäi, moät thôøi khaéc naøo ñoù. at/on the weekend, at Christmas / Easter at present / the moment / the same time / this (that) time Ex: Mr. Brown is busy at the moment. - Ñeå taïo thaønh caùc cuïm giôùi töø. at the end/beginning of, at the age of, at first/last Ex: He came to live in London at the age of 25. * LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng IN, ON, AT tröôùc all, every, this month/year, next, last, tomorrow, yesterday, today. Ex: He has worked hard all morning. (in all morning) I hope to see you next Friday. (on next Friday) * Caùc giôùi töø chæ thôøi gian khaùc: FROM … TO/UNTIL/TILL (töø … ñeán) (= BETWEEN … AND) Ex: Every morning he plays tennis from 6 to 7. (Every morning he plays tennis between 6 and 7.) SINCE (töø khi - moác thôøi gian) Ex: I’ve been waiting for her since 5pm. FOR (khoaûng) Ex: He has lived in Paris for three months. DURING (trong suoát) Ex: You have to be quiet during the performance. UNTIL/TILL (cho tôùi khi) Ex: She’ll be here until Thursday. BY (vaøo khoaûng - tröôùc hoaëc ñeán moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù) Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 33 Ex: You must be home by 9. BEFORE (tröôùc luùc) / AFTER (sau khi) Ex: Come and see me before / after lunch. 2) Giôùi töø theo sau tính töø: 1.1 Adj + TO acceptable: coù theå chaáp nhaän accustomed: quen agreeable: coù theå ñoàng yù applicable: coù theå öùng duïng appropriate: thích hôïp contrary: traùi vôùi dedicated: hieán daâng essential: caàn thieát friendly (to/with): thaân thieän generous: haøo phoùng harmful: coù haïi important: quan troïng kind: töû teá known: ñöôïc bieát ñeán likely: coù khaû naêng/coù theå thích hôïp loyal: trung thaønh lucky: may maén married: keát hoân open: môû pleasant: vui pleasing: laøm vui loøng polite: lòch söï preferable: thích hôn related: lieân quan rude: thoâ loã similar: gioáng strange: xa laï subject: deã bò, khoù traùnh true: trung thaønh 1.2 Adj + OF afraid: sôï aware: yù thöùc boastful: khoe khoang capable: coù khaû naêng careful(of/with/about): caån thaän careless: baát caån certain: chaéc chaén confident: tin desirous: khao khaùt fond: thích forgetful: queân full: ñaày glad: vui möøng innocent: voâ toäi jealous: ghen tò proud: töï haøo sure(of/about): chaéc chaén thoughtful: chu ñaùo, aân caàn Sthoughtless: khoâng chu ñaùo, aân caàn tolerant: khoan dung worthy: xöùng ñaùng 1.3 Adj + FOR anxious(for/about): lo aâu appropriate: thích hôïp available: coù theå duøng ñöôïc difficult: khoù Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 34 eager: haùo höùc, haêm hôû enough: ñuû famous: noåi tieáng good (for health/so.): toát grateful (for s.th.): bieát ôn late: treã necessary: caàn thieát perfect: hoaøn haûo responsible: coù traùch nhieäm sorry: laáy laøm thöông haïi sufficent: ñaày ñuû suitable(for/to): thích hôïp useful: coù lôïi ích 1.4 Adj + AT amazed(at/by): ngaïc nhieân angry (at/with s.o./to s.th.): giaän giöõ annoyed(at/by): böïc mình astonished(at/by): ngaïc nhieân bad(at s.th.): dôû clever: thoâng minh excellent: xuaát saéc good (at s.th.): gioûi hopeless: voâ voïng present: coù maët quick: nhanh skilful: coù naêng khieáu 1.5 Adj + WITH acquainted: quen annoyed: giaän bored / fed up: chaùn covered: bao phuû crowded: ñoâng disappointed: thaát voïng pleased: haøi loøng popular: noåi tieáng satisfied: thoaû maõn 1.6 Adj + IN honest: löông thieän interested: thích thuù proficient (at/in): thaønh thaïo rich: giaøu successful: thaønh coâng weak: yeáu keùm 1.7 Adj + FROM absent: vaéng different: khaùc distinct: khaùc bieät free: ñöôïc mieãn safe: an toaøn separate: rieâng leû 1.8 Adj + ABOUT confused: boái roái curious: toø moø, hieáu kyø enthusiastic: nhieät tình excited: höùng thuù happy: vui veû sad: buoàn serious: ñöùng ñaén, nghieâm tuùc worried: boàn choàn, lo laéng 2 ) Giôùi töø theo sau ñoäng töø: Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 35 accuse … of: buoäc toäi apologise to … for: xin loãi apologize for: xin loãi veà apply for: noäp ñôn xin vieäc arrive in/at: ñeán (nôi) ask … for: hoûi … cho believe in: tin töôûng vaøo belong to: thuoäc veà blame … for: ñoå loãi borrow … from: möôïn care about: quan taâm veà care for: chaêm soùc/thích/yeâu caàu charge … with: phaït come across: tình côø gaëp complain to … about: than phieàn concentrate on: taäp trung congratulate … on: chuùc möøng consist of: bao goàm crash into: va chaïm vaøo deal with: giaûi quyeát decide on: quyeát ñònh veà depend on: thuoäc vaøo die of: cheát vì divide into: chia (ra) dream of / about: mô veà escape from: thoaùt khoûi explain … to: giaûi thích feel like: caûm thaáy nhö happen to: xaûy ñeán hear about/from/of: nghe veà hope for: hi voïng veà insist on: khaêng khaêng invite … to: môøi laugh/smile at: cöôøi vaøo leave … for: rôøi … ñeå ñeán listen to: nghe live on: soáng nhôø vaøo look after: chaêm soùc look around: nhìn quanh look at: nhìn look back on: nhìn veà quaù khöù look down on: khinh reû look for: tìm look forward to: mong ñôïi look into: ñieàu tra object to: phaûn ñoái participate in: tham gia vaøo pay for: traû tieàn cho point / aim at: chæ … vaøo prefer … to: thích … hôn prepare for: chuaån bò provide … with: cung caáp regard … as: coi … nhö rely … on: döïa vaøo remind … of: nhaéc nhôû result from: do bôûi result in: gaây ra run into: tình côø gaëp search for: tìm kieám send for: cho môøi (ai) ñeán shout at: la, heùt speak/talk to: noùi vôùi spend … on: chi tieâu … cho succeed in: thaønh coâng veà suffer from: ñau, chòu ñöïng take after: gioáng think about / of: nghó veà throw … at: neùm … vaøo translate … from … into:dòch…töø…sang wait for: chôø warn … about: caûnh baùo … veà write to: vieát thö cho Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 36 * LÖU YÙ: Ñoäng töø hai chöõ ñi vôùi GO go after: ñuoåi theo, theo sau go ahead: tieán haønh, thaúng tieán go along: tieán trieån go away: ñi khoûi go back: trôû veà go by: (thôøi gian) troâi qua go down: (giaù caû) giaûm (# go up) go off: chaùy, noå go on: xaûy ra, dieãn ra, tieáp tuïc go out: taét, bò daëp taét go over: xem xeùt, kieåm tra kyõ go with: hôïp vôùi 4) V + N + Giôùi töø: catch sight of: thoaùng thaáy give place to: daønh choã cho give way to: nhöôïng boä keep pace with: theo kòp lose sight of: maát huùt lose touch with: maát lieân laïc vôùi lose track of: queân maát make allowance for: chieáu coá ñeán make fun of: choïc gheïo, cheá nhaïo make a fuss over/about: laøm loän xoän make room for: nhöôøng choã cho make use of: söû duïng, taän duïng pay attention to: chuù yù ñeán put a stop to: chaám döùt put an end to: chaám döùt set fire to: laøm chaùy, ñoát take account of: tính ñeán take advantage of: lôïi duïng,taän duïng take care of: chaêm soùc take note of: ghi chuù, ghi nhaän take notice of: löu yù, ñeå yù Better than never. Thaø muoän coøn hôn khoâng Baøi 11: SO SAÙNH TÍNH TÖØ VAØ TRAÏNG TÖØ I- So saùnh baèng: 1) Caâu khaúng ñònh: as + adj/adv + as (baèng/nhö) Ex: I’m as tall as Tom. (Toâi cao baèng Tom.) John works as hard as his father. (John laøm vieäc chaêm chæ nhö cha cuûa anh aáy.) 2) Caâu phuû ñònh: not as/so + adj/adv + as (khoâng baèng/nhö) Ex: This watch is not as/so expensive as mine. (= my watch) (Ñoàng hoà naøy khoâng ñaét nhö cuûa toâi.) She doesn’t sing as/so well as her sister. (Coâ aáy haùt khoâng hay baèng chò coâ aáy.) Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 37 * LÖU YÙ: - Khi so saùnh danh töø vôùi nghóa gioáng/baèng hay khoâng gioáng/khoâng baèng, ta coù theå duøng caáu truùc: (not) + the same + (noun) + as Ex: He is the same age as I am. (Anh ta baèng tuoåi toâi.) Ann’s salary isn’t the same as Jane’s. (Löông cuøa Ann khoâng baèng löông cuûa Jane.) - Coù theå duøng less + adj/adv + than (keùm … hôn) thay cho not as/so + adj/adv + as Ex: This watch is less expensive than mine. She sings less well than her sister. - Khi noùi gaáp bao nhieâu laàn, ta duøng caáu truùc … times as + adj/adv + as. Ex: Their house is three times as big as ours. (Nhaø cuûa hoï lôùn gaáp ba laàn nhaø chuùng ta.) II- So saùnh hôn: 1) Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: adj/adv + ER + than Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén laø töø coù moät vaàn hay hai vaàn taän cuøng baèng “y”. fast ---> faster cold ---> colder thick ---> thicker lucky ---> luckier happy ---> happier dry ---> drier … Ex: John is stronger than his brother. (John khoeû hôn anh cuûa caäu aáy.) This athlete runs faster than that one. 2) Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: more + adj/adv + than Tính töø/traïng töø daøi laø töø coù hai vaàn trôû leân. modern, patient, difficult, fluently, beautifully, … Ex: This problem is more difficult than we thought. (Vaán ñeà naøy khoù hôn chuùng ta nghó.) He speaks English more fluently than his friend. (Anh ta noùi tieáng Anh troâi chaûy hôn baïn cuûa anh ta.) III- So saùnh nhaát: 1) Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: the + adj/adv + EST cold ---> the coldest thick ---> the thickest fast ---> fastest lucky ---> the luckiest happy ---> the happiest ….. Ex: Yesterday was the hottest day of the year. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 38 (Hoâm qua laø ngaøy noùng nhaát trong naêm.) 2) Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: the + MOST + adj/adv Ex: She is the most beautiful girl in the class. (Coâ aáy laø coâ gaùi ñeïp nhaát trong lôùp.) * LÖU YÙ: - Ta coù theå duøng the least ñeå chæ möùc ñoä keùm … nhaát. Ex: This story is the least interesting of all. (Ñaây laø caâu chuyeän keùm thuù vò nhaát trong caùc caâu chuyeän.) - Tính töø/traïng töø baát qui taéc Tính töø/traïng töø So saùnh hôn So saùnh nhaát good/well (toát) better the best bad/badly (xaáu, dôû) worse the worst far (xa) farther/further the farthest/furthest little (ít) less the least many/much (nhieàu) more the most IV- Caùc daïng so saùnh khaùc: 1) Caøng ngaøy caøng … - Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: adj/adv + ER and adj/adv + ER Ex: Betty is younger and younger. (Betty caøng ngaøy caøng treû.) He runs faster and faster. (Anh ta chaïy caøng ngaøy caøng nhanh.) - Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: more and more + adj/adv Ex: My wife is more and more beautiful. (Vôï cuûa toâi caøng ngaøy caøng ñeïp.) They work more and more carefully. (Hoï laøm vieäc caøng ngaøy caøng caån thaän.) 2) Caøng … caøng … - The more + S + V, the more + S + V Ex: The more I know him, the more I like him. (Caøng bieát anh aáy, toâi caøng thích anh aáy.) - The + SS hôn + S + V, the + SS hôn + S + V Ex: The older he gets, the weaker he is. (OÂng ta caøng giaø caøng yeáu.) The more beautiful she is, the more miserable her parents are. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 39 (Coâ ta caøng ñeïp thì cha meï coâ ta caøng khoå.) - The more + S + V, the adj + ER + S + V Ex: The more he works, the richer he is. (OÂng ta caøng laøm caøng giaøu.) - The adj + ER + S + V, the more + S + V Ex: The hotter it is, the more tired I feel. (Trôøi caøng noùng toâi caøng thaáy meät.) V- Qui taéc theâm ER vaø EST ñoái vôùi tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: 1) Töø taän cuøng baèng “e” hay phuï aâm + “y” Ex: large lager largest easy easier easiest 2) Gaáp ñoâi phuï aâm: Ex: hot hotter hottest Misfortune has its uses. Trong caùi ruûi coù caùi may. Baøi 12: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÖØ Moät töø coù theå ñöôïc thaønh laäp baèng caùch theâm vaøo tieáp ñaàu ngöõ hoaëc tieáp vó ngöõ. I- DANH TÖØ: 1) Tieàn toá: super-/under-/sur-/sub-/over- + N ---> N DANH TÖØ NGHÓA DANH TÖØ NGHÓA overdose söû duïng quaù lieàu surface beà maët overexpenditure chi tieâu quaù möùc supermarket sieâu thò overproduction saûn xuaát vöôït möùc underachievement ñaït döôùi möùc subcontinent tieåu luïc ñòa undercurrent doøng nöôùc ngaàm subway taøu ñieän ngaàm undergrowth buïi raäm superman sieâu nhaân underpass ñöôøng chui 2) Haäu toá: a) V + -ion/-tion/-ation/-ition/-sion ---> N Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa add addition söï theâm vaøo permit permission söï cho pheùp combine combination söï keát hôïp pollute pollution söï oâ nhieãm Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 40 conserve conservation söï baûo toàn preserve preservation söï baûo quaûn correct correction söï söûa chöõa prevent prevention ngaên ngöøa decide decision quyeát ñònh produce production saûn xuaát discuss discussion thaûo luaän provide provision söï cung caáp inform information thoâng tin repeat repetition söï laëp laïi invite invitation lôøi môøi rotate rotation luaân phieân b) V + -ment/-ance/-ence/-age/-ery/-ing/-al ---> N Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa accept acceptance chaáp nhaän enrich enrichment söï laøm giaøu achieve achievement thaønh töïu exist existence söï toàn taïi arrange arrangement söï saép ñaët feel feeling caûm xuùc arrive arrival söï ñeán improve improvement söï caûi thieän attend attendance söï coù maët move movement söï di chuyeån build building toaø nhaø pay payment söï traû tieàn depend dependence söï leä thuoäc perform performance maøn trình dieãn develop development söï phaùt trieån poison poisoning laøm nhieãm ñoäc differ difference söï khaùc nhau recycle recycling vieäc taùi söû duïng disappoint disappointment thaát voïng refuse refusal töø choái discover discovery khaùm phaù rob robbery vuï cöôùp drain drainage söï thaùo nöôùc teach teaching daïy hoïc employ employment vieäc laøm use usage caùch duøng c) V + -er/-or/-ar/-ant/-ent/-ee/ ---> N Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa account accountant keá toaùn employ employee ngöôøi laøm coâng Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 41 act actor dieãn vieân nam fertilize fertilizer phaân boùn apply applicant ngöôøi xin vieäc inhabit inhabitant cö daân assist assistant ngöôøi phuï taù instruct instructor ngöôøi höôùng daãn attend attendant ngöôøi tham döï interview interviewee ngöôøi ñöôïc phoûng vaán beg beggar ngöôøi aên xin own owner ngöôøi chuû build builder thôï xaây pay payee ngöôøi ñöôïc traû tieàn calculate calculator maùy tính serve servant ngöôøi giuùp vieäc contest contestant ngöôøi döï thi sing singer ca só cook cooker beáp naáu aên teach teacher giaùo vieân deposit depositor ngöôøi gôûi tieàn train trainee ngöôøi ñöôïc ñaøo taïo drive driver taøi xeá walk walker ngöôøi ñi boä edit editor bieân taäp vieân work worker coâng nhaân d) N + -ist/-an/-ian/-ess ---> N Danh töø Danh töø Nghóa Danh töø Danh töø Nghóa act actress nöõ dieãn vieân music musician nhaïc só America American ngöôøi Myõ physics physicist nhaø vaät lyù history historian nhaø söû hoïc prince princess coâng chuùa host hostess baø chuû nhaø science scientist nhaø khoa hoïc journal journalist nhaø baùo tiger tigeress coïp caùi library librarian thuû thö tour tourist khaùch du lòch lion lioness sö töû caùi wait waitress nöõ haàu baøn e) N + -ism/-ship ---> N Danh töø Danh töø Nghóa Danh töø Danh töø Nghóa capital capitalism CN tö baûn hero heroism CN anh huøng champion championship chöùc voâ ñòch scholar scholarship hoïc toång friend friendship tình baïn sportsman sportsmanship tinh thaàn theå thao Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 42 f) Adj + -y/-ity/-ty/-cy/-ness/-ism/-dom ---> N Tính töø Danh töø Nghóa Tính töø Danh töø Nghóa able ability khaû naêng dark darkness boùng toái certain certainty söï chaéc chaén popular popularity söï phoå bieán clear clarity söï roõ raøng careful carefulness söï caån thaän difficult difficulty khoù khaên rich richness söï giaøu coù fluent fluency söï troâi chaûy careless carelessness söï baát caån national nationality quoác tòch sad sadness söï buoàn baõ possible possibility söï coù theå ill/sick illness/sickness söï ñau yeáu real reality söï thaät cold coldness söï laïnh leõo responsible responsibility traùch nhieäm happy happiness söï haïnh phuùc stupid stupidity söï ñaàn ñoän free freedom söï töï do g) Adj taän cuøng “ent” ---> “ence” Tính töø Danh töø Nghóa Tính töø Danh töø Nghóa absent absence söï vaéng maët intelligent intelligence söï thoâng minh confident confidence söï töï tin patient patience söï kieân nhaãn diligent diligence söï sieâng naêng silent silence söï yeân laëng independent independence söï ñoäc laäp violent violence söï baïo löïc II- ÑOÄNG TÖØ: 1) Tieàn toá: a) dis-/mis-/re-/over-/under-/out- + V ---> V Ñoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa disagree khoâng ñoàng yù outnumber nhieàu/ ñoâng hôn rewrite vieát laïi Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 43 disappear bieán maát outrun chaïy nhanh hôn undercharge tính giaù quaù thaáp dislike khoâng thích outweigh naëng hôn undercook naáu chöa chín misbehave cö xöû sai overact cöôøng ñieäu underdo laøm khoâng troïn veïn misspell ñaùnh vaàn nhaàm overcook naáu quaù chín underestimate ñaùnh giaù thaáp misunderstand hieåu nhaàm overstay ôû quaù laâu underfeed cho aên khoâng ñuû misuse söû duïng sai overwork laøm vieäc quaù laâu, quaù söùc underlay ñaët ôû döôùi outgrow lôùn/phaùt trieån hôn redo laøm laïi undersell baùn reû hôn outlive soáng laâu hôn remarry keát hoân laàn nöõa undersign kyù ôû döôùi b) en- + N/V/Adj ---> V Ñoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa enable laøm cho coù theå (laøm gì) enclose gôûi keøm enlarge môû roäng enact ban haønh (luaät) endanger gaây nguy hieåm enrich laøm giaøu 2) Haäu toá: Adj/N + -ize/-en/-ate/-fy ---> V Adj/N Ñoäng töø Nghóa Adj/N Ñoäng töø Nghóa beauty beautify laøm ñeïp origin originate baét nguoàn bright brighten laøm raïng rôõ real realize nhaän ra industrial industrialize CN hoaù sharp sharpen laøm cho saéc, nhoïn legal legalize hôïp phaùp hoaù short shorten laøm ngaén laïi less lessen giaûm bôùt tight tighten sieát chaët light lighten laøm nheï ñi weak weaken laøm yeáu ñi loose loosen laøm loûng ra white whiten laøm traéng Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 44 modren modernize hieän ñaïi hoaù wide widen laøm roäng ra III- TÍNH TÖØ: 1) Tieàn toá: a) un-/in-/im-/ir-/il-/dis- + Adj ---> Adj Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa dishonest khoâng trung thöïc incomplete khoâng ñaày ñuû unemployed thaát nghieäp illegal baát hôïp phaùp inconvenient baát tieän unequal khoâng bình ñaúng illogical khoâng hôïp lyù independent ñoäc laäp unhappy khoâng haïnh phuùc immature chöa chín chaén indivisible khoâng theå chia ñöôïc unlucky khoâng may impatient khoâng kieân nhaãn inexact khoâng chính xaùc unreal khoâng thaät impossible khoâng theå irregular baát qui taéc unsatisfactory khoâng haøi loøng impractical khoâng thöïc teá irresponsible voâ traùch nhieäm untrue khoâng ñuùng b) inter-/super-/under-/over-/sub- + Adj/N ---> Adj Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa international quoác teá overnight quaù ñeâm supernatural sieâu nhieân overanxious quaù lo aâu overseas haûi ngoaïi supersonic sieâu aâm overconfident quaù töï tin oversized quaù côõ undercover kín,bí maät overcrowded quaù ñoâng overweight quaù caân, beùo phì underdeveloped keùm phaùt trieån overelaborate quaù tæ mæ subconscious tieàm thöùc underpaid traû thaáp quaù overjealous quaù ghen subnormal döôùi bình thöôøng underweight nheï caân, thieáu caân overjoyed quaù vui superhuman sieâu phaøm 2) Haäu toá: a) N + -ly/-like/-less/-ish/-y/-ful/-al/-ic/ ---> Adj Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 45 Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa manly coù tính caùch ñaøn oâng dusty coù buïi brotherly thuoäc veà anh em snowy coù tuyeát worldly thuoäc veà theá giôùi rainy coù möa hourly haèng giôø sandy coù caùt yearly haèng naêm dirty baån daily haèng ngaøy healthy khoeû maïnh childlike nhö con nít magical tuyeät vôøi godlike nhö thaàn thaùnh agricultural noâng nghieäp statesmanlike nhö nhaø chöùc traùch industrial coâng nghieäp lifelike gioáng nhö thaät natural thieân nhieân speechless khoâng lôøi national thuoäc quoác gia carelesss khoâng caån thaän harmful coù haïi harmless khoâng ñoäc haïi useful coù ích childless khoâng coù con delightful vui veû treeless khoâng coù caây successful thaønh coâng odourless khoâng muøi vò hopeful hi voïng foolish ñieân daïi helpful hay giuùp ñôõ selfish ích kyû peaceful hoaø bình childish coù tính caùch treû con scientific khoa hoïc b) V/N + -ive/-able/-ible ---> Adj Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa acceptable coù theå chaáp nhaän defensible coù theå baûo veä ñöôïc achievable coù theå ñaït ñöôïc eatable coù theå aên ñöôïc active naêng ñoäng effective hieäu quaû agreeable taùn thaønh excusable coù theå tha thöù attractive haáp daãn informative coù nhieàu thoâng tin comprehensible coù theå hieåu manageable coù theå quaûn lyù countable coù theå ñeám washable coù theå giaët ñöôïc IV- TRAÏNG TÖØ: Phaàn lôùn: Adj + -ly ---> Adv (xem Baøi 10, III, 1.1) Never quit certainty for hope. Thaû moài baét boùng. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 46 Baøi 13: CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÂU Caùc daïng bieán ñoåi caâu thöôøng gaëp 1) Chuû ñoäng – bò ñoäng: (xem laïi Baøi 2) 2) Tröïc tieáp – giaùn tieáp: (xem laïi Baøi 4) 3) Ñaûo ngöõ: (xem laïi Baøi 6) 4) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ lyù do, söï nhöôïng boä:(xem laïi Baøi 8, II, 3&7) though/although/even though + S + V ---> despite/in spite of + V-ing/N/N phrase * LÖU YÙ: BUT ---> ALTHOUGH Ex: Cars cause pollution but people still want them. ---> Although cars cause pollution, people still want them. 5) So saùnh: (xem theâm Baøi 11, so saùnh baèng/nhaát/hôn) Ex: Mary is not as tall as Alice. ---> Mary is not so tall as Alice. ---> Mary is less tall than Alice. ---> Alice is taller than Mary. 6) Ñieàu kieän: (xem laïi Baøi 5, caâu ÑK loaïi 2 vaø 3) 1.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi: Ex: I’m busy. I don’t go to the concert. ---> If I were not busy, I would go to the concert. ---> Unless I were busy, I would go to the concert. 1.2 Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù: Ex: Peter missed the train because he woke up too late. ---> If Peter hadn’t woken up too late, he wouldn’t have missed the train. ---> Unless Peter had woken up too late, he wouldn’t have missed the train. 7) Ao öôùc: (xem laïi Baøi 5, caâu ao öôùc) 7.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi: Ex: Tom is not happy because his girlfriend is not here. ---> Tom wishes his girlfriend were here. 1.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù: Ex: I am sorry I missed your wedding party. ---> I wish I hadn’t missed your wedding party. 1.2 Khoâng coù thaät ôû töông lai: Ex: They will not attend my birthday party next week. ---> I wish they would attend my birthday party next week. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 47 8) Thueâ/nhôø ai laøm vieäc gì: (xem theâm Baøi 2, 4.2) S + V + O ---> S + have + O + V ---> S + have + O + V3/ed ---> S + get + O + to V ---> S + get + O + V3/ed Ex: The machanic repairs my car every month. ---> I have the machanic repair my car every month. ---> I get the machanic to repair my car every month. ---> I have/get my car repaired by the mechanic every month. 9) Ñeà nghò, lôøi khuyeân: Let’s + V S + advise/suggest + V-ing How/What about + V-ing? S + advise + O + to V Would you mind + V-ing? S + suggest (that) + S (+ should) + V Why don’t we/you + V? Ex: Let’s go for a ride! ---> What about going for a ride? Please don’t play the music so loudly. ---> Would you mind not playing the music so loudly? 10) Nguyeân nhaân – keát quaû: so + adj/adv + that clause such (a/an) + adj + N + that clause too + adj/adv (+ for O) + to + V not + adj + enough (+ for O) + to + V Ex: The water was so cold that the children couldn’t swim in it. ---> It was such cold water that the children couldn’t swim in it. ---> The water was too cold for the children to swim in. ---> The water is not warm enough for the children to swim in. * LÖU YÙ: - Trong caáu truùc so/such … that, ta giöõ laïi töø “it”. - Trong caáu truùc too … to vaø not … enough … to, ta boû töø “it”. 11) Muïc ñích/nguyeân nhaân: S + V + to/in order to/so as to + V S + V + so that/in order that + S + can/could + V S + V + because + S + V Ex: They started early to go to school on time. ---> They started early so that they could go to school on time. ---> They started early because they wanted to go to school on time. Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 48 12) Laàn thöù … (laøm chuyeän gì): S + have/had + never + V3/ed S + have/had + not + V3/ed + before ---> It/This is/was the first time (that) + S + have/had + V3/ed Ex: I have not eaten this kind of food before. ---> This is the first time that I have eaten this kind of food. 13) YÙ kieán/ñaùnh giaù moät söï vieäc: It + be + adj (for O) + to V ---> To V/V-ing + be + adj (for O) Ex: It is not easy for me to master English. ---> To master/Mastering English is not easy for me. It is more dangerous to drive a motorbike than to drive a car. ---> To drive a motorbike is more dangerous than to drive a car. ---> Driving a motorbike is more dangerous than driving a car. 14) Maát … (thôøi gian) laøm vieäc gì: S + spend + time + V-ing hoaëc S + last + time ---> It + takes/took + O + time + to V Ex: He spent 15 minutes finishing this exercise. ---> It took him 15 minutes to finish this exercise. The flight to Hong Kong lasts about 8 hours. ---> It takes about 8 hours to fly to Hong Kong. 15) Thoùi quen hieän taïi vaø trong quaù khöù: S + often/usually + V S + find + it + adj + to V ---> S + be used to + V-ing Ex: They usually drink beer. ---> They are used to drinking beer. I don’t find it difficult to get up early. ---> I am used to getting up early. S + used to + V ---> S + no longer + V = S + not … any more/any longer Ex: He used to smoke cigarettes. ---> He no longer smokes cigarettes. ---> He doesn’t smoke cigarettes any more / any longer. * LÖU YÙ: be used to + V/ be used for + V-ing: coâng duïng moät vaät Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 49 Ex: What is money used for? ---> It is used to buy or sell goods. ---> It is used for buying or selling goods. You are never too old to learn. Hoïc khoâng bao giôø muoän. PHUÏ LUÏC 1: ÑOÄNG TÖØ BAÁT QUY TAÉC THÖÔØNG GAËP Hieän taïi Quaù khöù QK PT Nghóa am/is/are was/were been thì, laø, ôû arise Arose arisen xuaát hieän bear Bore borne sinh ra beat Beat beaten ñaùnh, ñaäp become Became become trôû neân begin Began begun baét ñaàu bend Bent bent cuùi, gaäp bet Bet bet ñaùnh cuoäc bite Bit bitten caén bleed Bled bled chaûy maùu blow Blew blown thoåi break Broke broken laøm vôõ breed Bred bred nuoâi bring Brought brought mang build Built built xaây döïng burn* Burnt burnt ñoát chaùy burst Burst burst böøng chaùy buy bought bought mua catch Caught caught baét ñöôïc choose Chose chosen choïn löïa come Came come ñeán cost Cost cost trò giaù creep Crept crept boø cut Cut cut caét dig Dug dug ñaøo do Did done laøm Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 50 draw Drew drawn veõ dream* Dreamt dreamt mô drink Drank drunk uoáng drive Drove driven laùi xe eat ate eaten aên fall Fell fallen teù xuoáng feed Fed fed cho aên feel Felt felt caûm thaáy fight fought fought ñaùnh nhau find Found found tìm thaáy fit Fit fit vöøa vaën fly Flew flown bay forecast Forecast forecast döï baùo forget Forgot forgot(ten) queân forgive Forgave forgiven tha thöù freeze Froze frozen ñoâng laïnh get Got got(ten) ñaït ñöôïc give Gave given cho go Went gone ñi grind Ground ground nghieàn grow Grew grown moïc hang Hung hung treo have Had had coù; duøng hear Heard heard nghe hide Hid hidden che giaáu hit Hit hit ñuïng hold Held held caàm,naém,toå chöùc hurt hurt hurt laøm ñau keep Kept kept giöõ know Knew known bieát lay Laid laid ñaët, ñeå lead Led led daãn daét learn* Learnt learnt hoïc leave left left rôøi khoûi lend Lent lent cho möôïn let Let let ñeå cho lose Lost lost ñaùnh maát Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 51 make Made made laøm mean Meant meant nghóa laø meet Met met gaëp overcome overcame overcome vöôït qua pay Paid paid traû tieàn put Put put ñaët, ñeå quit Quit quit thoaùt ra read Read read ñoïc ride Rode ridden cöôõi, ñaïp xe ring Rang rung reo, rung rise Rose risen nhoâ,moäc leân run Ran run chaïy say Said said noùi seek Sought sought tìm kieám sell Sold sold baùn send Sent sent göûi ñi set Set set xeáp ñaët shake Shook shaken laéc shoot Shot shot baén shut Shut shut ñoùng laïi sing Sang sung haùt sink Sank sunk chìm, ñaém sit Sat sat ngoài sleep Slept slept nguû slide Slid slid tröôït ñi smell* Smelt smelt ngöûi speak Spoke spoken noùi speed Sped sped taêng toác spell Spelt spelt ñaùnh vaàn spend Spent spent tieâu xaøi spill Spilt spilt traøn ra spread Spread spread lan truyeàn stand Stood stood ñöùng sting Stung stung chích, ñoát strike Struck struck ñaùnh swear Swore sworn theà sweep Swept swept queùt Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 52 swim Swam swum bôi, loäi swing Swung swung ñaùnh ñu take Took taken caàm, naém teach Taught taught daïy tear Tore torn xeù raùch tell told told baûo, keå think Thought thought suy nghó throw Threw thrown neùm thrust Thrust thrust aán maïnh understand understood understood hieåu wake Woke woken ñaùnh thöùc wear Wore worn maëc, ñoäi weave Wove woven deät weep Wept wept khoùc wet Wet wet laøm öôùt win Won won thaéng write Wrote written vieát * Coù theå theâm “ed” ñeå thaønh laäp V2/3.  ☺  Chuùc caùc em thaønh coâng!!!ù ù øù ù øù ù ø Haõy vaøo õ øõ øõ ø ñeå tham khaûo å ûå ûå û theâm taøi lieäu hoïc taäp tieáng Anh.â ø ä ï ä áâ ø ä ï ä áâ ø ä ï ä á Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 53 MUÏC LUÏC Trang BAØI 1: THÌ CUÛA ÑOÄNG TÖØ ............................................................................ 1 BAØI 2: THEÅ THUÏ ÑOÄNG.................................................................................. 7 BAØI 3: SÖÏ HOAØ HÔÏP GIÖÕA CHUÛ TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ.................................... 9 BAØI 4: CAÂU NOÙI TRÖÏC TIEÁP VAØ GIAÙN TIEÁP ........................................... 11 BAØI 5: CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN VAØ CAÂU AO ÖÔÙC .............................................. 13 BAØI 6: SÖÏ ÑAÛO NGÖÕ ..................................................................................... 14 BAØI 7: TÖØ ÑÒNH LÖÔÏNG .............................................................................. 15 BAØI 8: MEÄNH ÑEÀ TÍNH TÖØ VAØ MEÄNH ÑEÀ TRAÏNG TÖØ ......................... 17 BAØI 9: DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO” ........ 22 BAØI 10: TÖØ LOAÏI ........................................................................................... 23 BAØI 11: SO SAÙNH TÍNH TÖØ VAØ TRAÏNG TÖØ .............................................. 36 BAØI 12: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÖØ .................................................................. 39 BAØI 13: CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÂU ........................................................................ 46 PHUÏ LUÏC: ÑOÄNG TÖØ BAÁT QUY TAÉC THÖÔØNG GAËP ............................. 49 TAØI LIEÄU THAM KHAÛO 1. John Eastwood, OXFORD GUIDE TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR, Oxford University Press, 1994 2. Raymond Murphy, ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE, Cambridge University Press, 2000 3. Haø Vaên Böûu, NHÖÕNG MAÃU CAÂU TIEÁNG ANH, NXB TP. HCM, 1998 4. Mai Lan Höông – Nguyeãn Thanh Loan, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH, NXB Treû, 2003 5. Thaùi Hoaøng Nguyeân – Ñoã Vaên Thaûo, BAØI TAÄP NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH NAÂNG CAO, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2003 6. Nguyeãn Vaên Thoï – Huyønh Kim Tuaán, BAØI TAÄP LUYEÄN TIEÁNG ANH THPT: NGÖÕ PHAÙP, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2005 7. Leâ Duõng, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH CAÊN BAÛN, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2006 8. Leâ Duõng, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH NAÂNG CAO, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2000 9. Vónh Khueâ – Traàn Vaên Nhaân, CHUYEÂN ÑEÀ BOÀI DÖÔÕNG ENGLISH 12, NXB Ñoàng Nai, 1997 10. Song Phuùc – Leâ Nguyeãn Minh Thoï, BÍ QUYEÁT LAØM BAØI TAÄP CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÁU TRUÙC CAÂU TRONG TIEÁNH ANH, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2004

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