Hóa học - Chapter 9: Alkynes

Permanganate Oxidation of Alkynes to Carboxylic Acids If potassium permanganate is used under basic conditions or if the solution is heated too much, an oxidative cleavage will take place and two molecules of carboxylic acids will be produced

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Chapter 9© 2010, Prentice HallOrganic Chemistry, 7th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr.AlkynesChapter 9*IntroductionAlkynes contain a triple bond.General formula is CnH2n-2.Two elements of unsaturation for each triple bond.Some reactions resemble the reactions of alkenes, like addition and oxidation.Some reactions are specific to alkynes. Chapter 9*Nomenclature: IUPACFind the longest chain containing the triple bond.Change -ane ending to -yne.Number the chain, starting at the end closest to the triple bond.Give branches or other substituents a number to locate their position.Chapter 9*Examples of NomenclatureAll other functional groups, except ethers and halides have a higher priority than alkynes.Chapter 9*Common NamesNamed as substituted acetylene.methylacetylene(terminal alkyne)isobutylisopropylacetylene(internal alkyne)CH3CHCH3CH2CCCHCH3CH3CH3CCHChapter 9*Physical PropertiesNonpolar, insoluble in water.Soluble in most organic solvents.Boiling points are similar to alkane of same size.Less dense than water.Up to four carbons, gas at room temperature.Chapter 9*AcetyleneAcetylene is used in welding torches.In pure oxygen, temperature of flame reaches 2800C.It would violently decompose to its elements, but the cylinder on the torch contains crushed firebrick wet with acetone to moderate it. Chapter 9*Synthesis of AcetyleneHeat coke with lime in an electric furnace to form calcium carbide.Then drip water on the calcium carbide:cokelimeThis reaction was used to produce light for miners’ lamps and for the stage. CCaO3++CaC2COHCCHCa(OH)2CaC2+2H2O+Chapter 9*Molecular Structure of AcetyleneTriple-bonded carbons have sp hybrid orbitals. A sigma bond is formed between the carbons by overlap of the sp orbitals. Sigma bonds to the hydrogens are formed by using the second sp orbital. Since the sp orbitals are linear, acetylene will be a linear molecule. Chapter 9*Overlap of the p Orbitals of Acetylene Each carbon in acetylene has two unhybridized p orbitals with one nonbonded electron. It is the overlap of the parallel p orbitals that form the triple bond (2 pi orbitals). Chapter 9*Bond LengthsTriple bonds are shorter than double or single bonds because of the two pi overlapping orbitals.Chapter 9*Acidity TableChapter 9*Acidity of AlkynesTerminal alkynes, are more acidic than other hydrocarbons due to the higher s character of the sp hybridized carbon.Terminal alkynes can be deprotonated quantitatively with strong bases such as sodium amide (-NH2).Hydroxide and alkoxide bases are not strong enough to deprotonate the alkyne quantitatively.Chapter 9*Formation of Acetylide IonsH+ can be removed from a terminal alkyne by sodium amide, NaNH2. The acetylide ion is a strong nucleophile that can easily do addition and substitution reactions.Chapter 9*Acetylide Ions in SN2 ReactionsOne of the best methods for synthesizing substituted alkynes is a nucleophilic attack by the acetylide ion on an unhindered alkyl halide.SN2 reaction with 1 alkyl halides lengthens the alkyne chain.Unhindered alkyl halides work better in an SN2 reaction: CH3X > 1°.Chapter 9*Acetylide Ions as Strong BasesAcetylide ions are also strong bases. If the SN2 reactions is not possible, then an elimination (E2) will occur.Chapter 9*Show how to synthesize 3-decyne from acetylene and any necessary alkyl halides.Another name for 3-decyne is ethyl n-hexylacetylene. It can be made by adding an ethyl group and a hexyl group to acetylene. This can be done in either order; we begin by adding the hexyl group.Solved Problem 1SolutionChapter 9*Addition to Carbonyl CompoundsNucleophiles can attack the carbonyl carbon forming an alkoxide ion which on protonation will form an alcohol.Chapter 9*Mechanism of Acetylenic Alcohol FormationChapter 9*Add to AldehydeProduct is a secondary alcohol, one R group from the acetylide ion, the other R group from the aldehyde. Chapter 9*Add to KetoneProduct is a tertiary alcohol. Chapter 9*Show how you would synthesize the following compound, beginning with acetylene and any necessary additional reagents.We need to add two groups to acetylene: an ethyl group and a six carbon aldehyde (to form the secondary alcohol). If we formed the alcohol group first, the weakly acidic —OH group would interfere with the alkylation by the ethyl group. Therefore, we should add the less reactive ethyl group first, and add the alcohol group later in the synthesis.The ethyl group is not acidic, and it does not interfere with the addition of the second group:Solved Problem 2SolutionChapter 9*Dehydrohalogenation ReactionRemoval of two molecules of HX from a vicinal or geminal dihalide produces an alkyne.First step (-HX) is easy, forms vinyl halide.Second step, removal of HX from the vinyl halide requires very strong base and high temperatures. Chapter 9*Reagents for EliminationMolten KOH or alcoholic KOH at 200C favors an internal alkyne.Sodium amide, NaNH2, at 150C, followed by water, favors a terminal alkyne. Chapter 9*Triple-Bond MigrationUnder extremely basic conditions, an acetylenic triple bond can migrate along the carbon chain by repeated deprotonation and reprotonation.Chapter 9*Addition ReactionsSimilar to addition to alkenes.Pi bond becomes two sigma bonds.Usually exothermic.One or two molecules may add.Chapter 9*Catalytic Hydrogenation of AlkynesTwo molecules of hydrogen can add across the triple bond to form the corresponding alkane. A catalyst such as Pd, Pt, or Ni needs to be used for the reaction to occur. Under these conditions the alkyne will be completely reduced; the alkene intermediate cannot be isolated.Chapter 9*Hydrogenation with Lindlar’s CatalystThe catalyst used for the hydrogenation reaction is partially deactivated (poisoned), the reaction can be stopped after the addition of only one mole of hydrogen. The catalyst used is commonly known as Lindlar's catalyst and it is composed of powdered barium sulfate, coated with palladium poisoned with quinoline. The reaction produces alkenes with cis stereochemistry.Chapter 9*Mechanism Both substrates, the hydrogen and the alkyne, have to be adsorbed on the catalyst for the reaction to occur. Once adsorbed, the hydrogens add to the same side of the double bond (syn addition) giving the product a cis stereochemistry.Chapter 9*Reduction of Alkynes with Metal AmmoniaTo form a trans alkene, two hydrogens must be added to the alkyne anti stereochemistry, so this reduction is used to convert alkynes to trans alkenes.Chapter 9*Reduction of Alkynes with Metal AmmoniaUse dry ice to keep ammonia liquid.As sodium metal dissolves in the ammonia, it loses an electron.The electron is solvated by the ammonia, creating a deep blue solution.NH3+ Na+Na+NH3e-Chapter 9*Mechanism of Metal ReductionStep 1: An electron adds to the alkyne, forming a radical anion.Step 2: The radical anion is protonated to give a radical.Step 3: An electron adds to the alkyne, forming an anion.Step 4: Protonation of the anion gives an alkene.Chapter 9*Addition of HalogensCl2 and Br2 add to alkynes to form vinyl dihalides.May add syn or anti, so product is mixture of cis and trans isomers.Difficult to stop the reaction at dihalide.CH3CCHCH3CCHBrBrCH3CCCH3BrBrBrBrBr2CH2Cl2Br2CH2Cl2Chapter 9*Addition of HXOne mole of HCl, HBr, and HI add to alkynes to form vinyl halides.If two moles of HX is added, product is a geminal dihalide.The addition of HX is Markovnikov and will produce a geminal dihalide.Chapter 9*Mechanism of Hydrogen Halide AdditionThe triple bonds abstract a proton from the hydrogen halide forming a vinyl cation. The proton adds to the least substituted carbon. The second step of the mechanism is the attack by the halide.Chapter 9*Anti-Markovnikov Addition of Hydrogen Bromide to AlkynesBy using peroxides, hydrogen bromide can be added to a terminal alkyne anti-Markovnikov. The bromide will attach to the least substituted carbon giving a mixture of cis and trans isomers.Chapter 9*Hydration of AlkynesMercuric sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid adds H—OH to one pi bond with a Markovnikov orientation, forming a vinyl alcohol (enol) that rearranges to a ketone.Hydroboration–oxidation adds H—OH with an anti-Markovnikov orientation, and rearranges to an aldehyde. Chapter 9*Mercuric Ion Catalyzed Hydration of AlkynesWater can be added across the triple bond in a reaction analogous to the oxymercuration–demercuration of alkenes. The hydration is catalyzed by the mercuric ion. In a typical reaction, a mixture of mercuric acetate in aqueous sulfuric acid is used. The addition produces an intermediate vinyl alcohol (enol) that quickly tautomerizes to the more stable ketone or aldehyde.Chapter 9*Mechanism of Mercuric Ion Catalyzed HydrationThe electrophilic addition of mercuric in (Hg+2) creates a vinyl carbocation. Water attacks the carbocation and after deprotonation, forms an organomercurial alcohol. Hydrolysis of the alcohol removes the mercury, forming a vinyl alcohol commonly referred to as enol. Chapter 9*Keto–Enol TautomerismEnols are not stable and they isomerize to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone in a process known as keto-enol tautomerism.Chapter 9*Hydroboration–Oxidation ReactionAlkynes can be hydrated anti-Markovnikov by using the hydroboration–oxidation reaction. A hindered alkyl borane needs to be used to prevent two molecules of borane to add to the triple bond. Disiamylborane has two bulky alkyl groups.If a terminal alkyne is used, the borane will add to the least substituted carbon. Chapter 9*Oxidation of BoranesIn the second step of the hydroboration–oxidation, a basic solution of peroxide is added to the vinyl borane to oxidize the boron and replace it with a hydroxyl group (OH). Once the enol is formed, it tautomerizes to the more stable aldehyde.Chapter 9*Oxidation of AlkynesSimilar to oxidation of alkenes.Dilute, neutral solution of KMnO4 oxidizes alkynes to a diketone.Warm, basic KMnO4 cleaves the triple bond.Ozonolysis, followed by hydrolysis, cleaves the triple bond. Chapter 9*Permanganate Oxidation of Alkynes to DiketonesUnder neutral conditions, a dilute potassium permanganate solution can oxidize a triple bond into an diketone. The reaction uses aqueous KMnO4 to form a tetrahydroxy intermediate, which loses two water molecules to produce the diketone. Chapter 9*Permanganate Oxidation of Alkynes to Carboxylic AcidsIf potassium permanganate is used under basic conditions or if the solution is heated too much, an oxidative cleavage will take place and two molecules of carboxylic acids will be produced.Chapter 9*OzonolysisOzonolysis of alkynes produces carboxylic acids (alkenes gave aldehydes and ketones). Used to find location of triple bond in an unknown compound. HOCOCH2CH3CH3COOHH2O(2)O3(1)CH3CCCH2CH3+

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