Công nghệ chuyển hóa than - Phần 1: Giới thiệu chung

India  Reserves. India possesses over 10 % of world reserves, mostly bituminous coal. Production. Coal is the main source of energy and vital for India's economic development. A steady increase in production to nearly 300 × 106 t of hard coal. Consumption. Consumption doubled since 1984. Despite increased production, some coal is imported, mainly for quality reasons

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Môn học : Công nghệ chuyển hóa than • Giảng viên : Văn Đình Sơn Thọ • Thời lượng : 45 tiết • Phone : 097.360.4372 • thovds-petrochem@mail.hut.edu.vn • Địa chỉ load bài giảng : • https://sites.google.com/site/vandinhsontho MỤC LỤC 1. Giới thiệu chung 2. Nguồn gốc quá trình hình thành than 3. Cấu tạo hóa học của than 4. Thành phần hóa học của than 5. Động học các phản ứng chính của quá trình 6. Công nghệ cháy 7. Công nghệ nhiệt phân than 8. Công nghệ khí hóa than 9. Công nghệ phụ trợ 10. Ứng dụng chính của công nghệ khí hóa than Sản xuất nhiên liệu tổng hợp ( F-T) Sản xuất điện năng 11. Thu giữ và Chôn lấp CO2 ( Carbon dioxide capture storage - CCS ) 12. Đánh giá tác động môi trường ( Life cycle assessment – LCA) Phần 1 : Giới thiệu chung 1.1 Trữ lượng than trên thế giới Table 12. Proven recoverable world reserves of coal as of end 1999 [88] * Excluding the former Soviet Union Region or country Anthracite and bituminous Sub-bituminous and lignite Africa and Middle East 61 355 250 North America 116 707 139 770 South and Central America 7839 13 735 Asia* 137 121 64 253 Former Soviet Union 97 476 132 702 Europe 41 664 80 368 Australia and New Zealand 47 329 43 642 Total 509 491 474 720 The world's proven recoverable reserves of coal are an estimated 510 × 109 t of hard coal 475 × 109 t of brown coal (sub-bituminous and lignite) Region or country Quantity, 10 6 t Proportion, % Africa South Africa 220.3 6.2 Others 2.1 0.1 Africa total 222.4 6.3 Americas United States 919.6 26.2 Canada 36.5 1 Brazil 5.2 0.1 Columbia 33 0.9 Mexico 10.3 0.3 Others 5.6 0.2 Americas total 1010.2 28.7 Table 13. World hard coal production in 1999 [89] Region or country Quantity, 10 6 t Proportion, % Asia China* 1045 29.7 India 292.2 8.3 Indonesia 70.7 2 Japan 3.9 0.1 North Korea 71.5 2 South Korea 4.1 0.1 Pakistan 3.3 0.1 Turkey 2.7 0.1 Vietnam 8.7 0.2 Others 2.2 0.1 Asia total 1504.3 42.8 * including brown coal ** including lignit negro Europe Czech & Slovakia 18.6 0.5 Poland 111.4 3.2 Former Soviet 315 9 France 4 0.1 Germany 43.9 1.2 Spain** 15.4 0.4 United Kingdom 36.4 1 Others 1.5 0 Europe total 546.2 15.5 Australia & New Zealand 230.4 6.6 World total 3513.4 100 Table 14. World brown coal production in 1999 [89] Region or country Quantity, 10 6 t Proportion, % Americas United States 77.5 9.2 Canada 36 4.3 Americas total 113.5 13.5 Asia China .* . Mongolia 7 0.8 India 22.2 2.6 Noth Korea 26.5 3.1 Turkey 66.8 7.9 Thailand 21.1 2.5 Asia total 143.6 17 Region or country Quantity, 10 6 t Proportion, % Europe Bulgaria 24.2 2.9 Czech & Slovakia 44.8 5.3 Hungary 13.7 1.6 Poland 60.8 7.2 Romania 19.3 2.3 Former Soviet 97 11.5 Former Yugoslavia 31 3.7 Austria 1.1 0.1 Finland 8.2 1 France 0.9 0.1 Germany 162.2 19.3 Greece 61.5 7.3 Ireland 2.9 0.3 Spain 8.8 1 Europe total 536.5 63.7 Australia & New Zealand 48.4 5.7 World total 842.1 100 Table 15. World trade* in hard coal in 1999 [90] Exports 10 6 t United States 34 Canada 33 Columbia 29 Venezuela 7 China 37 Indonesia 53 Poland 16 Former Soviet 18 South Africa 66 Australia 172 Others 66 472 Imports European Union 144 Other Europe 30 Japan 136 South Korea 53 Taiwan 40 Honkong 6 India 17 OtherAsia 15 Latin America 20 Others 11 472 1.2 Some Major Coal Producing Countries United States  Reserves. The United States possesses economically recoverable hard coal reserves of ca. 111 × 109 t — one-fifth of total world reserves. For brown coal the respective figures are 135 × 109 t and over 25 %. Production. The United States has maintained a high level of production for decades, producing one-fourth of the world's coal.. Consumption. Domestic coal consumption, which absorbs more than 90 % of production, has varied little in the past few years, with power stations being the main consumers. Australia  Reserves. Australia possesses economically recoverable reserves of 47 × 109 t of hard coal and 43 × 109 t of brown coal, each representing 9 % of world reserves. Production. Coal production has risen steadily in the last few decades and is expected to do so in future. Consumption. The high-quality coals found in Queensland and New South Wales are of value as steam and metallurgical coals, and most of production is for export. In 1984 Australia became the world's foremost hard-coal exporter with 61 × 106 t. In 1999 exports nearly tripled these figures. Production from Western Australia, Victoria, and South Australia (bituminous and sub- bituminous coal, lignite) is geared to local thermal electricity generation. Germany  Reserves. Due to its very large deposits of brown coal, unified Germany possesses nearly 7 % of the world's economically recoverable coal reserves. Production. Output of hard coal has fallen from a peak of 150 × 106 t in 1957 to 44 × 106 t in1999 and further reductions are planned. Brown-coal production dropped continuously with the closure of mines in the eastern Länder. Nevertheless, with > 160 × 106 t, Germany is by far the largest producer of brown coal in the world. Consumption. The majority of the hard coal (65 %) and nearly all of the brown coal is channeled into the generation of electricity. The second largest consumer is the steel industry. Following the decline of indigenous production hard-coal imports have steadily increased. Poland  Reserves. Polish recoverable coal reserves amount to 12 × 109 t of hard coal and 2 × 109 t of brown coal. Production. Poland boosted its production for export reasons for a long period. In the mid-1980s government officials expected to increase hard-coal output to 205 × 106 t and its brown-coal output to 100 × 106 t by the year 2000. Instead, production in 1999 fell to 111 × 106 t of hard coal and 60 × 106 t of brown coal. Consumption. Inland consumption decreased every year during the last decade and may decrease even further. In the meantime, Poland tried to maintain its exports. In 1984, when it was able to export 45 × 106 t, thereby attaining a 14 % share of world trade, Poland set its intermediate export goal at 42 × 106 t/a of hard coal. During the last few years, exports reached only 30 × 106 t. Republic of South Africa  Reserves. South Africa has recoverable reserves of ca. 55 × 109 t of hard coal, which at current production levels would last nearly 300 years. Production. Production has raised to over 200 × 106 t/a. Consumption. The slight increase in production in the last few years was initiated by higher internal demand. Coal is the main primary energy for the generation of electricity (95 %). Exports are over 60 × 106 t/a. China Reserves. China accounts for ca. 11 % of the world's recoverable coal reserves. Hard-coal reserves are concentrated in the north and northwest of the country. Substantial lignite deposits are distributed throughout the country. Production. Production has been reduced during the last four years, nevertheless China is still the world's largest producer (1996: 1393 × 106 t hard coal; 1999: 1000 × 106 t). Consumption. China is very dependent on its vast coal reserves. The bulk being used internally for electricity and heat generation. Transportation of coal is a major problem, with a significant proportion of production being in the north, but with the most rapidly growing demand in the southern and eastern regions. Only minor quantities (30 – 40 × 106 t/a) of coal are exported. India  Reserves. India possesses over 10 % of world reserves, mostly bituminous coal. Production. Coal is the main source of energy and vital for India's economic development. A steady increase in production to nearly 300 × 106 t of hard coal. Consumption. Consumption doubled since 1984. Despite increased production, some coal is imported, mainly for quality reasons Indonesia  Reserves. Indonesia has vast resources of high-quality accessible coal. In terms of tonnage, southern Sumatra contains the highest proportion although much of it is lignite. The coal from Kalimatan includes some deposits of very high quality (low ash and sulfur, high volatile matter). Production. Since 1984 the annual production has tripled up to over 70 × 109 t. Consumption. The national policy is to expand internal use; the target is for 80 % of electricity to be generated from coal-fired plants. But the main impulse to increase the production is the expanding export market. Indonesia has become the world's third largest exporter of coal . United Kingdom  Reserves. With the decline of prices for imported coal the estimates of reserves which were regarded as economically recoverable have been reduced to about 1 × 109 t. Production. Due to the high cost of extracting the coal, production has had to be steadily diminished and will be cut even further. Consumption. The United Kingdom is still among the major consumers of coal in the world, but with competition from other energy resources, especially oil and gas from the North Sea, a further decline is expected Former Soviet Union  Reserves. With 230 × 109 t of recoverable coal reserves, 97 × 109 t of which is hard coal, the former Soviet Union accounts for 25 % of total world reserves. Production. Due to its vast resources the Soviet Union still ranks third among world producers. In 1999 coal production in the Russian Federation reached only 60 % of the 1989 level. Ukrainian production dropped by nearly 50 %. Consumption. Coal consumption has mirrored reduced production. Major changes will depend on future economical developments. 1.2 Tình hình ngành công nghiệp than ở Việt Nam Trữ lượng (nghìn tấn) Than quảng Ninh 4,049,559 Than bùn 331,790 Than địa phương 37,434 Than khác 165,109 Khoái Châu 1,580,956 Antraxit 4,118,349 Sub-bitumious 1,580,956 Than nâu 96,319 Than bùn 331,790 2006-2010 2011-2015 2016-2020 2021-2025 2025- Tổng 3,695,447 285,357 391,376 473,347 547,024 1,998,334 Quang Ninh 2,826,620 269,247 368,945 390,101 393,100 1,405,227 Khác 16,109 22,432 83,246 153,924 593,117 Than khác 9,276 11,073 11,897 11,474 46,320 Than bùn 235,438 1,833 2,500 2,500 2,500 9,145 Than địa phương 18,478 5,000 7,222 11,667 17,222 194,327 Khoái châu 524,871 - 1,636 57,182 122,727 343,326 Năm 2010 2015 2020 2030 2040 2050 Sản lượng 41,340 49.015 51,850 44,815 42,315 38,740 Khả năng khai thác 1.3 Tình hình năng lượng điện ở Việt Nam 2007 2010 2015 2020 2025 Nhập khẩu 510 758 2250 5724 5724 Điện hạt nhân 0 0 0 1000 11000 Thủy điện nhỏ & NLTT 250 1196 2451 2951 4051 NĐ dầu – khí 6029 8579 11579 18329 18329 NĐ than 1830 5924 27424 65024 118424 Thủy điện 5561 9133 16049 18449 23749 Đơn vị đo : MW 020,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000 2007 2010 2015 2020 2025 Thủy điện NĐ than NĐ dầu – khí Thủy điện nhỏ & NLTT Điện hạt nhân Nhập khẩu MW 2010 3%0% 5% 34% 23% 35% Nhập khẩu Điện hạt nhân Thủy điện nhỏ & NLTT NĐ dầu – khí NĐ than Thủy điện 2020 5% 1% 3% 16% 58% 17% Nhập khẩu Điện hạt nhân Thủy điện nhỏ & NLTT NĐ dầu – khí NĐ than Thủy điện

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