Chapter 3 Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model

Alternative (min, max) notation for relationship structural constraints Example: A department has exactly one manager and an employee can manage at most one department. Specify (0,1) for participation of EMPLOYEE in MANAGES Specify (1,1) for participation of DEPARTMENT in MANAGES An employee can work for exactly one department but a department can have any number of employees.

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Chapter 3 Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship (ER) Model ER Model Concepts ER Model (Entity-relationship model): describes data as entities, attributes and relationships. Entities: Entities are specific objects or things in the mini-world that are represented in the database. The basic object that the ER model represents is an entity,  Example: the EMPLOYEE John Smith. Attributes: are properties used to describe an entity. Each entity has attributes.  Example: an EMPLOYEE entity may have a Name, Address, Sex, Birthdate. ER Model Concepts A specific entity will have a value for each of its attributes. Example: a specific employee entity may have Name='John Smith', Address ='731, Fondren, Houston, TX', Sex='M', BirthDate='09-JAN-55‘ Each attribute has a value set (or data type) associated with it – e.g. integer, string, enumerated type, Types of Attributes Simple (or atomic): Attributes that are not divisible. For example, Sexual, SSN(Social Security number), Composite: Attributes can be divided into smaller subparts, which represent more basic attributes with independent meanings. Example: Address (Apt#, House#, Street, City, State, ZipCode, Country) Name (FirstName, MiddleName, LastName). Composition may form a hierarchy where some components are themselves composite. Types of Attributes Types of Attributes Multi-valued: In some cases an attribute can have a set of values for the same entity Example: Color of a CAR Previous Degrees of a STUDENT. A multivalued attribute may have lower and upper bounds to constrain the number of values allowed for each individual entity. Types of Attributes Complex Attributes: Composite and multivalued attributes can be nested in an arbitrary way. Arbitrary nesting is represented by grouping components of a composite attribute between parentheses () and separating the components with commas, and by displaying multivalued attributes between braces {}. Example: {AddressPhone({Phone(AreaCode, PhoneNumber)}, Address(StreetAddress(Number, Street, ApartmentNumber), City,State,Zip) ) } Entity Types and Key Attributes Entity type: Entities with the same basic attributes are grouped or typed into an entity type. For example, the EMPLOYEE entity type. Key Attributes: An entity type usually has an attribute whose values are distinct for each individual entity in the entity set. Such an attribute is called a key attribute, and its values can be used to identify each entity uniquely. Entity Types and Key Attributes A key attribute may be composite. For example, VehicleTagNumber is a key of the CAR entity type with components (Number, State). An entity type may have more than one key. For example, the CAR entity type may have two keys:  VehicleIdentificationNumber (popularly called VIN)  VehicleTagNumber (Number, State), also known as license_plate number. Entity Types and Key Attributes Entity Types and Key Attributes NOTATION FOR ER SCHEMAS Entity Type Weak entity type Relationship type Identifying relationship type Attribute Key attribute Multivalued attribute Composite attribute Derived attribute Total participation of E2 in R Cardinality ratio 1:n for E1:E2 in r Structural constraint (min, max) on participation of E in R E1 R E2 E1 R E2 R (min,max) E N Relationships and Relationship Types A relationship: relates two or more distinct entities with a specific meaning. Example: EMPLOYEE John Smith works on the ProductX PROJECT. A relationship type R among n entity types E1, E2, , En defines a set of associations among entities from these entity types. Example, the WORKS_ON relationship type in which EMPLOYEEs and PROJECTs participate. Relationships and Relationship Types Relationships and Relationship Types More than one relationship type can exist with the same participating entity types. Example: MANAGES and WORKS_FOR are distinct relationships between EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT, but with different meanings and different relationship instances. Relationships and Relationship Types Relationship Degree The degree of a relationship type is the number of participating entity types. Binary: A relationship type of degree two Example: Both MANAGES and WORKS_ON are binary relationships Ternary: Relationship types of degree three n-ary: Relationship types of degree n. Relationship Degree Role Names, and Recursive Relationships Role Names: Each entity type that participates in a relationship type plays a role in the relationship. The role name signifies the role that a participating entity from the entity type plays in each relationship instance. Recursive relationships: The same entity type participates more than once in a relationship type in different roles. Role Names, and Recursive Relationships For example, SUPERVISION relationships between EMPLOYEE (in role of supervisor or boss) and (another) EMPLOYEE (in role of subordinate or worker). Role Names, and Recursive Relationships Recursive Relationship Type is: SUPERVISION (participation role names are shown) Example COMPANY Database Requirements of the Company: The company is organized into DEPARTMENTs. Each department has a name, number and an employee who manages the department. Each department controls a number of PROJECTs. Each project has a name, number and is located at a single location. We store each EMPLOYEE’s social security number, address, salary, sex, and birthdate. Example COMPANY Database Each employee works for one department but may work on several projects. We keep track of the number of hours per week that an employee currently works on each project. We also keep track of the direct supervisor of each employee. Each employee may have a number of DEPENDENTs. For each dependent, we keep track of their name, sex, birthdate, and relationship to employee. Initial Conceptual Design of the COMPANY Database Initial Conceptual Design of the COMPANY Database Weak Entity Types An entity that does not have a key attribute A weak entity must participate in an identifying relationship type with an owner or identifying entity type Entities are identified by the combination of: A partial key of the weak entity type The particular entity they are related to in the identifying entity type Weak Entity Types Example: Suppose that a DEPENDENT entity is identified by the dependent’s first name and birthdate, and the specific EMPLOYEE that the dependent is related to. DEPENDENT is a weak entity type with EMPLOYEE as its identifying entity type via the identifying relationship type DEPENDENT_OF Constraints on Relationship Types Maximum Cardinality (The cardinality ratio) for a binary relationship specifies the maximum number of relationship instances that an entity can participate in. One-to-one (1:1) One-to-many (1:N) or Many-to-one (N:1) Many-to-many Minimum Cardinality (participation constraint or existence dependency constraints) Zero (optional participation, not existence- dependent) One or more (mandatory, existence-dependent) Constraints on Relationship Types Constraints on Relationship Types Constraints on Relationship Types Cardinality ratios for binary relationships are represented on ER diagrams by displaying 1, M, and N. Attributes of Relationship types A relationship type can have attributes; for example, HoursPerWeek of WORKS_ON; its value for each relationship instance describes the number of hours per week that an EMPLOYEE works on a PROJECT. Attributes of Relationship types Alternative (min, max) notation for relationship structural constraints Specified on each participation of an entity type E in a relationship type R Specifies that each entity e in E participates in at least min and at most max relationship instances in R Default(no constraint): min=0, max=n Must have minmax, min0, max 1 Derived from the knowledge of mini-world constraints Alternative (min, max) notation for relationship structural constraints Example: A department has exactly one manager and an employee can manage at most one department. Specify (0,1) for participation of EMPLOYEE in MANAGES Specify (1,1) for participation of DEPARTMENT in MANAGES An employee can work for exactly one department but a department can have any number of employees. Alternative (min, max) notation for relationship structural constraints Specify (1,1) for participation of EMPLOYEE in WORKS_FOR Specify (0,n) for participation of DEPARTMENT in WORKS_FOR COMPANY ER Schema Diagram using (min, max) notation

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