Bài giảng Systems Analysis and Design - Chapter 4: Information Gathering: Interactive Methods

Summary Interviewing Interview preparation Question types Arranging Questions The interview report Joint Application Design (JAD) Involvement and location Questionnaires Writing questions Using Scales and overcoming problems Design and order Administering and submitting

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Information Gathering: Interactive MethodsSystems Analysis and Design, 7eKendall & Kendall4© 2008 Pearson Prentice HallObjectivesRecognize the value of interactive methods for information gatheringConstruct interview questions to elicit human information requirementsStructure interviews in a way that is meaningful to usersUnderstand the concept of JAD and when to use itWrite effective questions to survey users about their workDesign and administer effective questionnaires2Interactive Methods to Elicit Human Information RequirementsInterviewingJoint application design (JAD)questionnaires3Major TopicsInterviewing Interview preparationQuestion typesArranging QuestionsThe interview reportJoint Application Design (JAD)InvolvementlocationQuestionnairesWriting questionsUsing ScalesDesignAdministering4InterviewingInterviewing is an important method for collecting data on human and system information requirementsInterviews reveal information about:Interviewee opinionsInterviewee feelingsGoalsKey HCI concerns5Interview PreparationReading background materialEstablishing interview objectivesDeciding whom to interviewPreparing the intervieweeDeciding on question types and structure6Question TypesOpen-endedClosed7Open-Ended QuestionsOpen-ended interview questions allow interviewees to respond how they wish, and to what length they wishOpen-ended interview questions are appropriate when the analyst is interested in breadth and depth of reply8Advantages of Open-Ended QuestionsPuts the interviewee at easeAllows the interviewer to pick up on the interviewee's vocabularyProvides richness of detailReveals avenues of further questioning that may have gone untapped9Advantages of Open-Ended Questions (Continued)Provides more interest for the intervieweeAllows more spontaneityMakes phrasing easier for the interviewerUseful if the interviewer is unprepared10Disadvantages of Open-Ended QuestionsMay result in too much irrelevant detailPossibly losing control of the interviewMay take too much time for the amount of useful information gainedPotentially seeming that the interviewer is unpreparedPossibly giving the impression that the interviewer is on a "fishing expedition”11Closed Interview QuestionsClosed interview questions limit the number of possible responsesClosed interview questions are appropriate for generating precise, reliable data that is easy to analyzeThe methodology is efficient, and it requires little skill for interviewers to administer12Benefits of Closed Interview QuestionsSaving interview timeEasily comparing interviewsGetting to the pointKeeping control of the interviewCovering a large area quicklyGetting to relevant data13Disadvantages of Closed Interview QuestionsBoring for the intervieweeFailure to obtain rich detailingMissing main ideasFailing to build rapport between interviewer and interviewee14Figure 4.5 Attributes of 0pen-ended and closed questions15Bipolar QuestionsBipolar questions are those that may be answered with a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ or ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’Bipolar questions should be used sparinglyA special kind of closed question16ProbesProbing questions elicit more detail about previous questionsThe purpose of probing questions is:To get more meaningTo clarifyTo draw out and expand on the interviewee's pointMay be either open-ended or closed17Arranging QuestionsPyramid starting with closed questions and working toward open-ended questionsFunnel starting with open-ended questions and working toward closed questionsDiamond starting with closed, moving toward open-ended, and ending with closed questions18Pyramid StructureBegins with very detailed, often closed questionsExpands by allowing open-ended questions and more generalized responsesIs useful if interviewees need to be warmed up to the topic or seem reluctant to address the topic19Figure 4.7 Pyramid structure for interviewing goes from specific to general questions20Funnel StructureBegins with generalized, open-ended questionsConcludes by narrowing the possible responses using closed questionsProvides an easy, non-threatening way to begin an interviewIs useful when the interviewee feels emotionally about the topic21Figure 4.8 Funnel structure for interviewing begins with broad questions then funnels to specific questions22Diamond StructureA diamond-shaped structure begins in a very specific wayThen more general issues are examinedConcludes with specific questionsCombines the strength of both the pyramid and funnel structuresTakes longer than the other structures23Figure 4.9 Diamond-shaped structure for interviewing combines the pyramid and funnel structures24Closing the InterviewAlways ask “Is there anything else that you would like to add?”Summarize and provide feedback on your impressionsAsk whom you should talk with nextSet up any future appointmentsThank them for their time and shake hands25Interview ReportWrite as soon as possible after the interviewProvide an initial summary, then more detailReview the report with the respondent26Joint Application Design (JAD)Joint Application Design (JAD) can replace a series of interviews with the user communityJAD is a technique that allows the analyst to accomplish requirements analysis and design the user interface with the users in a group setting27Conditions that Support the Use of JADUsers are restless and want something newThe organizational culture supports joint problem-solving behaviorsAnalysts forecast an increase in the number of ideas using JADPersonnel may be absent from their jobs for the length of time required28Who Is InvolvedExecutive sponsorIS AnalystUsersSession leaderObserversScribe29Where to Hold JAD MeetingsOffsiteComfortable surroundingsMinimize distractionsAttendanceSchedule when participants can attendAgendaOrientation meeting30Benefits of JADTime is saved, compared with traditional interviewingRapid development of systemsImproved user ownership of the systemCreative idea production is improved31Drawbacks of Using JADJAD requires a large block of time to be available for all session participantsIf preparation or the follow-up report is incomplete, the session may not be successfulThe organizational skills and culture may not be conducive to a JAD session32Questionnaires Questionnaires are useful in gathering information from key organization members about:AttitudesBeliefsBehaviorsCharacteristics33Planning for the Use of QuestionnairesOrganization members are widely dispersedMany members are involved with the projectExploratory work is neededProblem solving prior to interviews is necessary34Question Types Questions are designed as either:Open-endedTry to anticipate the response you will getWell suited for getting opinionsClosedUse when all the options may be listedWhen the options are mutually exclusive35Figure 4.12 Trade-offs between the use of open-ended and closed questions on questionnaires36Questionnaire LanguageSimpleSpecificShortNot patronizingFree of biasAddressed to those who are knowledgeableTechnically accurateAppropriate for the reading level of the respondent37Measurement ScalesThe two different forms of measurement scales are:NominalInterval38Nominal ScalesNominal scales are used to classify thingsIt is the weakest form of measurementData may be totaledWhat type of software do you use the most?1 = Word Processor2 = Spreadsheet3 = Database4 = An Email Program39Interval ScalesAn interval scale is used when the intervals are equalThere is no absolute zeroExamples of interval scales include the Fahrenheit or Centigrade scaleHow useful is the support given by the Technical Support Group?NOT USEFUL EXTREMELY AT ALL USEFUL 1 2 3 4 540Validity And ReliabilityReliability of scales refers to consistency in response—getting the same results if the same questionnaire was administered again under the same conditionsValidity is the degree to which the question measures what the analyst intends to measure41Problems with Scales LeniencyCentral tendencyHalo effect42LeniencyCaused by easy ratersSolution is to move the “average” category to the left or right of center43Central TendencyCentral tendency occurs when respondents rate everything as averageImprove by making the differences smaller at the two endsAdjust the strength of the descriptorsCreate a scale with more points44Halo EffectWhen the impression formed in one question carries into the next questionSolution is to place one trait and several items on each page45Designing the QuestionnaireAllow ample white spaceAllow ample space to write or type in responsesMake it easy for respondents to clearly mark their answersBe consistent in style46Order of QuestionsPlace most important questions firstCluster items of similar content togetherIntroduce less controversial questions first47Figure 4.13 When designing a Web survey, keep in mind that there are different ways to capture responses48Methods of Administering the QuestionnaireConvening all concerned respondents together at one timePersonally administering the questionnaireAllowing respondents to self-administer the questionnaireMailing questionnairesAdministering over the Web or via email49Electronically Submitting QuestionnairesReduced costsCollecting and storing the results electronically50SummaryInterviewing Interview preparationQuestion typesArranging QuestionsThe interview reportJoint Application Design (JAD)Involvement and locationQuestionnairesWriting questionsUsing Scales and overcoming problemsDesign and orderAdministering and submitting51

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