• Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 18: Data Analysis and MiningBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 18: Data Analysis and Mining

    Other Types of Mining ■ Text mining: application of data mining to textual documents ● cluster Web pages to find related pages ● cluster pages a user has visited to organize their visit history ● classify Web pages automatically into a Web directory ■ Data visualization systems help users examine large volumes of data and detect patterns visu...

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  • Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 17: Recovery SystemBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 17: Recovery System

    Show Paging (Cont.) ■ Advantages of shadow­paging over log­based schemes ● no overhead of writing log records ● recovery is trivial ■ Disadvantages : ● Copying the entire page table is very expensive  Can be reduced by using a page table structured like a B+­tree – No need to copy entire tree, only need to copy paths in the tree that lead ...

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  • Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 16: Concurrency ControlBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 16: Concurrency Control

    SI In Oracle and PostgreSQL ■ Warning: SI used when isolation level is set to serializable, by Oracle and PostgreSQL ● PostgreSQL’s implementation of SI described in Section 26.4.1.3 ● Oracle implements “first updater wins” rule (variant of “first committer wins”)  concurrent writer check is done at time of write, not at commit time  Allows ...

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  • Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 15: TransactionsBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 15: Transactions

    Implementation of Isolation ■ Schedules must be conflict or view serializable, and recoverable, for the sake of database consistency, and preferably cascadeless. ■ A policy in which only one transaction can execute at a time generates serial schedules, but provides a poor degree of concurrency. ■ Concurrency­control schemes tradeoff between th...

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  • Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 14: Query OptimizationBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 14: Query Optimization

    Multiquery Optimization ■ Example Q1: select * from (r natural join t) natural join s Q2: select * from (r natural join u) natural join s ● Both queries share common subexpression (r natural join s) ● May be useful to compute (r natural join s) once and use it in both queries  But this may be more expensive in some situations – e.g. (r natu...

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  • Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 13: Query ProcessingBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 13: Query Processing

    Complex Joins ■ Join involving three relations: loan depositor customer ■ Strategy 1. Compute depositor customer; use result to compute loan (depositor customer) ■ Strategy 2. Computer loan depositor first, and then join the result with customer. ■ Strategy 3. Perform the pair of joins at once. Build and index on loan for loan­number, and on...

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  • Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 12: Indexing and HashingBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 12: Indexing and Hashing

    Grid Files (Cont.) ■ During insertion, if a bucket becomes full, new bucket can be created if more than one cell points to it. ● Idea similar to extendable hashing, but on multiple dimensions ● If only one cell points to it, either an overflow bucket must be created or the grid size must be increased ■ Linear scales must be chosen to uniforml...

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  • Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 11: Storage and File StructureBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 11: Storage and File Structure

    Modifying Large Objects ■ If the application requires insert/delete of bytes from specified regions of an object: ● B+­tree file organization (described later in Chapter 12) can be modified to represent large objects ● Each leaf page of the tree stores between half and 1 page worth of data from the object ■ Special­purpose application program...

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  • Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 10: XMLBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 10: XML

    XML Application: Web Services ■ The Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) standard: ● Invocation of procedures across applications with distinct databases ● XML used to represent procedure input and output ■ A Web service is a site providing a collection of SOAP procedures ● Described using the Web Services Description Language (WSDL) ● Direct...

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  • Bài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 9: Object­Based DatabasesBài giảng Database System Concepts - Chapter 9: Object­Based Databases

    Comparison of O­O and O­R Databases ■ Relational systems ● simple data types, powerful query languages, high protection. ■ Persistent­programming­language­based OODBs ● complex data types, integration with programming language, high performance. ■ Object­relational systems ● complex data types, powerful query languages, high protection. ■ No...

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